Category: Airway Management
Keywords: trauma, PTX, finger thoracostomy, needle decompression, 2nd intercostal space, 5th intercostal space, pneumothorax (PubMed Search)
Finger thoracostomy is superior to needle decompression in the fifth mid-axiallary intercostal space which is superior to the traditionally taught needle decompression in the second mid-clavicular intercostal space for traumatic tension pneumothorax/trauamtic arrest.
SHARON HENRY, MD, FACS ATLS 10th edition offers new insights into managing trauma patients Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons PUBLISHED JUNE 1, 2018
Scott Weingart, MD FCCM EMCRIT Podcast 62 – Needle vs. Knife II: Needle Thoracostomy? December 11, 2011
Hannon, L. et al. .Finger thoracostomy in patients with chest trauma performed by paramedics on a helicopter emergency medical service Emerg Med Australas 2020 Aug;32(4):650-656.doi: 10.1111/1742-6723.13549. Epub 2020 Jun 21
Andy Neil Stop putting IV cannulae in the 2nd ICS for tension PTX Emergency Medicine Ireland Posted on November 15, 2012
Category: Airway Management
Keywords: knee pain, running injury (PubMed Search)
Pes Anserinus pain syndrome (formerly pes anserine Bursitis)
Occurs at the bursa of the pes anserinus which overlies the attachment of the 1) Sartorius 2) gracilis and 3) semi-tendinosis tendons. Insertions resemble a Goose’s foot.
An inflammatory condition of the medial knee
Location is 2-3 inches below the knee joint on the medial side
1st layer of medial compartment
Patients complain of knee pain just below medial joint line (esp with stairs)
History may include sudden increase in running distance especially with hills (common)
Associated with obesity, tight hamstring muscles and with knee OA
PE: Tenderness to palpation of the bursa possibly with mild swelling
DDx: MCL tear, medial meniscus injury, medial (knee) compartment arthritis, tibial stress fracture
Treatment: Cessation/modification of offending activities, Icing and ice massage, NSAIDs, hamstring stretching and physical therapy. Failure of the above should prompt referral for bursal steroid injection.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: 30 ml/kg, sepsis, fluid overload, ESRD, CHF (PubMed Search)
Have you ever encountered an ESRD patient who missed dialysis because the patient "felt too sick to go to dialysis"? The patient then had hypotension from an infected catheter line? Do we give 30 ml/kg of balanced fluid now?
Title: Outcomes of CMS-mandated ?uid administration among ?uid-overloaded patients with sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Settings: This is a meta-analysis
Patients: Septic patients who have underlying fluid overload conditions (CHF or ESRD).
Intervention: intravenous fluid administration according to the mandate by the Center for Medicare/Medicaid as 30 ml per kilograms of bodyweight.
Comparison: fluid administration at less than 30 ml/kg of body weight.
Outcome: 30-day mortality, rates of vasopressor requirement, rates of invasive mechanical ventilation
Pence M, Tran QK, Shesser R, Payette C, Pourmand A. Outcomes of CMS-mandated fluid administration among fluid-overloaded patients with sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2022 May;55:157-166. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2022.03.004. Epub 2022 Mar 10. PMID: 35338881.
Keywords: Trauma, Airway Management, Resuscitation (PubMed Search)
Manageing the airway of a trauma patient presents difficulties because of both anatomic and physiologic derangement.
The Bottom Line: Trauma patients requiring intubation are a challenge and should be managed by the most expereinced person in the room. No study shows superiority of direct vs.video laryngoscopy. Use the technique you are most facile with and develop more techniques through courses, mentoring, and expanding your repertoire in less ill patients first. Use induction agents with lower liklelihood of causing hypotension like Etomidate and ketamine (avoid propofol and benzodiazepenes). Avoid hypoxia, hypotension and hypocarbia by resucitating as much as possible prior to intubation (use blood products and pressors where appropriate). Have a plan, a back up plan, and know when to switch to a surgical airway approach. This ia a low frequency, high risk proceedure. Mentally visualize yourself doing this proceedure regualrly to create a comfort level when it is actually needed.
1. Blood/Emesis A. Use a double suction set up with one suction placed into the airway near the esophagus and then moved to the left of the mouth with the second used by the intubator to clear their view.
B. If you can't visualize becaue of vomit/emesis it is very likely BVM and super glotic airways are not going to be possible and you will need to move to a surgical (front of neck) airway.
2. Limited Jaw Opening Cervical collars can impede jaw opening. Loosen/open the collar to allow more jaw opening. Studies show that there is limited movement of C-Spine when the intubator uses caution not to flex the neck during intubation meaning the collar does not have to be in place. No study shows diret or video laryngoscopy to be superior.
3. Blunt or penetrating neck injury Highest level of difficulty. Should be most expereienced intubator. Can use an awake intubation technique if you are adept at this method. Go with the airway approach that gives YOU the best first pass success chance. Another situation where BVM or suprglotic airway device may not work and requires surgical airway. May require low tracheostomy approach.
4. Hypoxia Avoiding hypoxia is a must especially in traumatic brain injured patients. Pre-oxygenate and use the airway technique that is going to give you the best first past chance of success.
5. Hypotension: A. Resuscitate with blood products as much as possible before intubation. B. Use induction agents that are the most hemodynamically neutral such as Etomidate or Ketamine (safe in head injury patients!)
6.. Hypocarbia: Congrats on getting the tube! Now slow down your bagging. Hypocarbia leads to increased injury in traumatic brain injured patients.
George Kovacs MD, Nicolas Sowers, MD
Airway Management in Trauma
Emerg Med Clin N Am 36 (2018) 61-84
Keywords: pediatrics, moderate sedation, airway, laryngospasm. (PubMed Search)
Cosgrove P, Krauss B, Cravero J and Fleegler E. Predictors of Laryngospasm During 276,832 Episodes of Pediatric Procedural Sedation. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2022. epub ahead of print
Category: Critical Care
Point-of-care ultrasound compression of the carotid artery for pulse determination in cardiopulmonary resuscitation
S. Y. Kang, I. J. Jo, G. Lee et al., Point-of-care ultrasound compression of the carotid artery for pulse determination in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Resuscitation, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2022.06.025
Keywords: mortality, exercise, dementia, walking (PubMed Search)
Exericse as preventative medicine!
A recent cohort study of over 2,000 adults (mean age approx. 45) over approximately 11 years of follow-up investigated the association of step count with mortality.
This study found that those participants taking at least 7,000 steps per day compared to those taking fewer steps had a 50%-70% lower risk of mortality. They did not find an association with step intensity.
Another recent study investigated the dose-response association between daily step count and intensity and the incidence of all-cause dementia.
Uk based study of >78,000 adults aged 40 to 79 years with approximately 7 years of follow-up. Data from wrist accelerometer and registry-based dementia diagnoses.
Optimal step dose was 9826 steps. Minimal dose was 3826 steps (value at which the risk reduction was 50% of the observed max).
In this study, steps performed at higher intensity (112 steps/min) resulted in stronger associations.
Conclusions: A great exercise goal for middle aged and older adults is just under 10,000 steps per day to decrease risks of both overall mortality and dementia.
1) Paluch AE, et al. Steps per Day and All-Cause Mortality in Middle-aged Adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(9):e2124516.
2) del Pozo Cruz B, et al. Association of Daily Step Count and Intensity With Incident Dementia in 78?430 Adults Living in the UK. JAMA Neurol. Published online September 06, 2022.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: intubation, propofol, RSI, SOFA (PubMed Search)
This is essentially a secondary analysis of a previous prospective observational cohort study with high quality methods. The authors have an excellent discussion of the previous studies on this topic (which for those with an interest I highly recommend you read). They conclude that this study supports previous literature which I would think would be seemingly obvious, which is that those who are more ill to begin with have less tolerance of propofol (in a dose-independent relationship) in this and previous studies. Their use of IPTW extends the analysis on this large international population by addressing confounders in a novel way.
Their overall conclusion is that propofol is bad for the critically ill, and especially bad for those with pre-existing risk factors for intubation complications. I agree: This study suggests in even stronger terms that propofol should be used carefully and probably only in unhealthy patients when other options are unavailable.
Study Background and Characteristics
Russotto V, Tassistro E, Myatra SN, Parotto M, Antolini L, Bauer P, Lascarrou JB, Szu?drzy?ski K, Camporota L, Putensen C, Pelosi P, Sorbello M, Higgs A, Greif R, Pesenti A, Valsecchi MG, Fumagalli R, Foti G, Bellani G, Laffey JG. Peri-intubation Cardiovascular Collapse in Patients Who Are Critically Ill: Insights from the INTUBE Study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2022 Aug 15;206(4):449-458. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202111-2575OC. PMID: 35536310.
Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Keywords: Intaosseous, Pharmacy, Medications (PubMed Search)
Intraosseous (IO) administration uses bone marrow to deliver fluids and medications during cardiac resuscitation or other emergent situations where IV access cannot be established.
IV versus IO
Considerations When Using IO Access
Von Hoff DD, Kuhn JG, Burris HA 3rd, Miller LJ. Does intraosseous equal intravenous? A pharmacokinetic study. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26(1):31-38. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2007.03.024
Langley DM, Moran M. Intraosseous needles: they're not just for kids anymore. J Emerg Nurs. 2008;34(4):318-319. doi:10.1016/j.jen.2007.07.005
Ngo AS, Oh JJ, Chen Y, Yong D, Ong ME. Intraosseous vascular access in adults using the EZ-IO in an emergency department. Int J Emerg Med. 2009;2(3):155-160. Published 2009 Aug 11. doi:10.1007/s12245-009-0116-9
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: ultrasound, central Line, confirmation, venous, cavoatrial junction, agitated saline, pneumothorax (PubMed Search)
Traditionally, internal jugular and subclavian central line placement has required chest x-ray confirmation of correct placement (venous cavoatrial junction placement) as well as demonstrating lack of complication (no pneumothorax) prior to use of that central line. However, current evidence supports similar if not superior complication identification and placement confirmation with ultrasound,(1-7) allowing for a much quicker confirmation time than traditional chest x-ray, which can be vital in critically ill patients who need immediate medication administration.
Venous placement is confirmed with prompt visualization of microbubbles in the right atrium and ventricle with a rapid flush of 5-10 ml of agitated saline via the distal central line port. Additionally, if the opacification occurs <2 seconds after injection then the catheter tip is sufficiently distal in the central venous system to not require additional verification. Additional confirmation of lung sliding in both lung apices will rule out pneumothorax.
Some authors recommend checking the contralateral internal jugular vein to ensure that the central line catheter has not traveled up the internal jugular towards the head, however this may be redundant as long as the time from agitated saline injection to right atrial visualization of microbubbles is clearly less than 2 seconds.
Bottom Line: Utilization of ultrasound for central line placement confirmation is a relatively simple, rapid, safe, and accurate means of confirmation of venous catheter placement and catheter tip location, as well as ruling out pneumothorax complications.
1) Jasper M. Smit, Mark E. Haaksma, Endry H. T. Lim, Thei S. Steenvoorden, Michiel J. Blans, Frank H. Bosch, Manfred Petjak, Ben Vermin, Hugo R. W. Touw, Armand R. J. Girbes, Leo M. A. Heunks, Pieter R. Tuinman; Ultrasound to Detect Central Venous Catheter Placement Associated Complications: A Multicenter Diagnostic Accuracy Study. Anesthesiology 2020; 132:781–794 doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000003126
2) Wilson SP, Assaf S, Lahham S, Subeh M, Chiem A, Anderson C, Shwe S, Nguyen R, Fox JC. Simplified point-of-care ultrasound protocol to confirm central venous catheter placement: A prospective study. World J Emerg Med. 2017;8(1):25-28. doi: 10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2017.01.004. PMID: 28123616; PMCID: PMC5263031.
3) Vezzani A, Brusasco C, Palermo S, Launo C, Mergoni M, Corradi F. Ultrasound localization of central vein catheter and detection of postprocedural pneumothorax: an alternative to chest radiography. Crit Care Med. 2010 Feb;38(2):533-8. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181c0328f. PMID: 19829102.
4) Gekle R, Dubensky L, Haddad S, Bramante R, Cirilli A, Catlin T, Patel G, D'Amore J, Slesinger TL, Raio C, Modayil V, Nelson M. Saline Flush Test: Can Bedside Sonography Replace Conventional Radiography for Confirmation of Above-the-Diaphragm Central Venous Catheter Placement? J Ultrasound Med. 2015 Jul;34(7):1295-9. doi: 10.7863/ultra.34.7.1295. PMID: 26112633.
5) Zanobetti M, Coppa A, Bulletti F, Piazza S, Nazerian P, Conti A, Innocenti F, Ponchietti S, Bigiarini S, Guzzo A, Poggioni C, Taglia BD, Mariannini Y, Pini R. Verification of correct central venous catheter placement in the emergency department: comparison between ultrasonography and chest radiography. Intern Emerg Med. 2013 Mar;8(2):173-80. doi: 10.1007/s11739-012-0885-7. Epub 2012 Dec 16. PMID: 23242559.
6) Duran-Gehring PE, Guirgis FW, McKee KC, Goggans S, Tran H, Kalynych CJ, Wears RL. The bubble study: ultrasound confirmation of central venous catheter placement. Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Mar;33(3):315-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2014.10.010. Epub 2014 Oct 13. PMID: 25550065.
7) Weekes AJ, Johnson DA, Keller SM, Efune B, Carey C, Rozario NL, Norton HJ. Central vascular catheter placement evaluation using saline flush and bedside echocardiography. Acad Emerg Med. 2014 Jan;21(1):65-72. doi: 10.1111/acem.12283. PMID: 24552526.
Keywords: Migrant Health, DEI (PubMed Search)
Approximately 284,000 immigrants reside in Baltimore (10% of the total population). In April 2022, Governor Abbott of Texas began sending migrants from the US southern border to Washington, DC, with Arizona joining soon after. It is important for emergency providers to be aware of these changes and how new disparities may arise.
Mahmoud I, Eley R, Hou XY. Subjective reasons why immigrant patients attend the emergency department. BMC Emerg Med. 2015 Mar 28;15:4.
Maldonado CZ, Rodriguez RM, Torres JR, Flores YS, Lovato LM. Fear of discovery among Latino immigrants presenting to the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Feb;20(2):155-61.
Tarraf W, Vega W, González HM. Emergency department services use among immigrant and non-immigrant groups in the United States. J Immigr Minor Health. 2014 Aug;16(4):595-606.
Keywords: Concussion, head injury, recovery, cognitive rest (PubMed Search)
Limited data are available to guide recommendations re screen time after concussion.
A recent ED study looked at screen time effects on concussion recovery.
Population: 125 patients aged 12 to 25 years presenting to the ED <24h after injury. Mean age 17. Approximately 51% male.
Intervention: Patients were placed in a screen time allowed group and a screen time not allowed group for the first 48 hours. Total minutes reported after the study were 630 minutes vs 130 minutes.
Outcome: Time to symptom resolution. Patients took daily symptom scoring tests for 10 days.
Result: Screen time allowed group had a significantly longer time to recovery (8 days) vs screen time not allowed (3.5 days).
Strength: Good attempt at quantifying effects on early screen time exposure on symptom recovery in an ED population.
Weakness: This was a small study. Many patients (>25%) were lost to follow-up and it relies on symptom self-reporting.
Macnow T, et al. Effect of Screen Time on Recovery From Concussion: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr. Nov 2021.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: analgosedation, sedation, intubation, (PubMed Search)
Deep sedation in the ED has previously been associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation, longer lengths of stay, and higher mortality.1 Current guidelines recommend light sedation, consistent with a goal RASS of -2 to 0, for most critically-ill patients in the ICU.2
The ED-SED3 multicenter, pragmatic, before-and-after feasibility study implemented an educational initiative (inservices, regular reminders, laminated sedation charts) to help target lighter sedation depths in newly-intubated adult patients without acute neurologic injury or need for prolonged neuromuscular blockade.
After educational intervention:
Even with the caveats of the confounding and bias that can exist in before-and-after studies, these results are consistent with prior sedation-related studies and offer more evidence to support for avoiding deep sedation in our ED patients. The study also demonstrates the importance of nurse-driven sedation in achieving sedation goals.
Bottom Line: Our initial care in the ED matters beyond initial stabilization and compliance with measures and bundles. Avoid oversedating intubated ED patients, aiming for a goal RASS of -2 to 0.
Keywords: COVID, kids, masking, school (PubMed Search)
This was a multistate, prospective, observational cohort of children and teachers attending in person schools in kindergarden through 12th grade where the school districs had the ability to perform contact tracing and determine primary vs secondary infections. During the study period (6/21-12/21) 46 districts had universal masking policies and 6 districts had optional masking policies.
Districts that optionally masked had 3.6x the rate of secondary transmission compared to universally masked school districts. Optionally masked districts had 26.4 cases of secondary transmission per 100 community acquired cases compared to only 7.3 cases in universally masked districts.
Bottom line: Universial masking was associated with reduced secondary transmission of SARS-CoV2 compared with optional masking policies.
Boutzoukas AE, Zimmerman KO, Inkelas M, et al. School Masking Policies and Secondary SARS-CoV-2 Transmission. Pediatrics. 2022;149 (6):e2022056687.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Calcium, Cardiac Arrest, ACLS, Code Blue (PubMed Search)
We previously posted on the COCA trial, which looked at empiric calcium administration in cardiac arrest. They studied 391 adult Danish cardiac arrest patients. The immediate and 30 day outcomes showed no benefit, and in fact strongly trended towards calcium being WORSE than placebo. This article provides the 6 month and 1 year follow up data. Surprise, surprise... calcium is still not looking good.
At 6 months survival non-significantly favored the placebo group, and at 1 year it significantly favored the placebo group. Neurologic outcome for those who survived was also no better, and perhaps slightly worse, in the calcium group.
Importantly, the trial excluded patients with "traumatic cardiac arrest, known or suspected pregnancy, prior enrollment in the trial, adrenaline prior to possible enrollment, and clinical indication for calcium at the time of randomization."
Bottom Line: The evidence continues to not support the routine empiric administration of calcium in cardiac arrest. Patients in whom there is an indication to give calcium (e.g. known ESRD, suspected hyperkalemia, etc) are excluded from these trials, and should likely still receive empiric calcium, but in undifferentiated cardiac arrest you can probably skip the calcium.
Vallentin MF, Granfeldt A, Meilandt C, Povlsen AL, Sindberg B, Holmberg MJ, Iversen BN, Mærkedahl R, Mortensen LR, Nyboe R, Vandborg MP, Tarpgaard M, Runge C, Christiansen CF, Dissing TH, Terkelsen CJ, Christensen S, Kirkegaard H, Andersen LW. Effect of calcium vs. placebo on long-term outcomes in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 2022 Jul 30;179:21-24. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2022.07.034. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35917866.
Keywords: Dislocation, reduction, AVN (PubMed Search)
The hip joint is a very strong and stable structure requiring great force to produce a dislocation
Most hip dislocations are posterior (80-90%)
Mechanism: MVC generating force onto an adducted flexed hip (most commonly)
Associated injuries occur both locally (acetabular fx) and distant (knee bone and ligamentous)
Significant associated injuries in >70%
The hip joint has a very precarious blood supply.
One of the risk factors for AVN is total dislocation time
<6 hours - 5% incidence
>6 hours – up to 53% incidence
Examine the sciatic nerve carefully with posterior dislocations (10% incidence)
Motor – EHL/ankle dorsiflexion
Sensory – sensation dorsum of foot
There are many reduction maneuvers including the East Baltimore Lift technique
Demonstrated at 30 seconds in above video
Place patient supine with affected leg flexed to 90 degrees at knee and hip. 2 providers position themselves on opposite sides of the patient and each places their arm under the patient’s calf/popliteal region and their hand on the opposite providers shoulder. A 3rd person is required to stabilize the pelvis. Axial traction is generated by the providers slowly standing up. Gentle internal and external rotation can facilitate successful reduction
Category: Critical Care
Diastolic Blood Pressure
Hernandez G, et al. Invasive arterial pressure monitoring: much more than mean arterial pressure! Intensive Care Med. 2022. Published online ahead of print.
Keywords: pediatric trauma, tranexamic acid (PubMed Search)
Bottom line: There is not clear evidence for efficacy, but trends are positive and the documented rates of adverse effects in this population are low. It is reasonable to give, especially in patients requiring massive transfusion or who are critically ill.
Eckert MJ, Wertin TM, Tyner SD, et al. Tranexamic acid administration to pediatric trauma patients in a combat setting: the pediatric trauma and tranexamic acid study (PED-TRAX). J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014;77(6):852-858.
Hamele M, Aden JK, Borgman MA. Tranexamic acid in pediatric combat trauma requiring massive transfusions and mortality. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020;89(2S Suppl 2):S242-S245.
Nishijima, DK, VanBuren, JM, Linakis, SW, et al. Traumatic injury clinical trial evaluating tranexamic acid in children (TIC-TOC): A pilot randomized trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2022; 29: 862– 873.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Hemodynamics, Intubation, RSI, Shock (PubMed Search)
Hemodynamic instability and cardiac arrest are major complications following endotracheal intubation. The mantra “resuscitate before you intubate” has prompted several studies of how to prevent this.
The PREPARE II trial is a multicenter ICU-based trial studying the effect of 500cc of crystalloid versus no crystalloid pre-emptively to prevent hypotension following endotracheal intubation. The study enrolled 1067 critically ill patients in United States ICUs. Some 60% of patient were intubated for respiratory failure and 20% were already on vasopressor. The primary induction drugs we etomidate and rocuronium. Importantly, urgent intubation was an exclusion. There were no differences in multiple endpoints including hypotension, new need for vasopressors, cardiac arrest, or 28-day mortality.
This was in some ways this in not unexpected and patients already in an ICU setting have typically received some form of fluid loading already. Being ICU based and primarily a more smoldering medical population this has limited application to more emergent and undifferentiated settings, but study underscores the need for a broad and nuanced view of what “resuscitate” means. Positive pressure may exacerbate hypovolemia, but the patient’s underlying disease, the effect of anesthetic drugs both by direct action via relief of pain, discomfort, or dyspnea may predominate if you think the patient is euvolemic.
Remember to dose anesthetics/sedatives/RSI drugs with an eye toward hemodynamics and consider starting vasopressors prior to intubation
-In a broad well-conducted ICU-based study a 500cc peri-intubation bolus doesn’t prevent hypotension
-Have a broad view of what resuscitation for intubation might entail
-Having fluid ready for intubation is helpful, hemodynamic dosing of drugs and having a plan for vasopressors might be even more helpful
-Applicability to ED environments is limited in this ICU-based trial
JAMA. 2022;328(3):270-279. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.9792
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Awareness, mechanical ventilation, Emergency Department, Rocuronium (PubMed Search)
Have you ever wonder what patients feel after being intubated in the ED?
The study " Awareness With Paralysis Among Critically Ill Emergency Department Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study" aimed at answering just that.
Settings: Emergency Departments from 3 hospitals; This was a secondary analysis of a prospective trial.
Patients who received neuromuscular blockade in ED
Outcome: Primary outcome was Awareness while paralyzed, secondary outcome was Perceived threat, which is considered the pathway for PTSD.
The study evaluated 388 patients. There were 230 (59%) patients who received rocuronium.
Patients who received rocuronium (5.5%, 12/230) were more likely to experience awareness than patients receiving other neuromuscular blockade (0.6%, 1/158).
Patients who experienced awareness during paralysis had a higher threat perception score that those who did not have awareness (15.6 [5.8] vs. 7.7 [6.0], P<0.01).
A multivariable logistic regression, after adjustment for small sample size, showed that Rocuronium in the ED was significantly associated with awareness (OR 7.2 [1.39-37.58], P = 0.02).
With the increasing use of rocuronium for rapid sequence intubation in the ED, clinicians should start to pay more attention to the prevalence of awareness during paralysis. According to the study, patients reported pain from procedures, being restrained, and worst of all feelings of impending death.
One of the risk factors for awareness during paralysis would be the long half-life of rocuronium, compared to that of succinylcholine. Therefore, clinicians should consider prompt and appropriate dosage of sedatives for post-intubation sedation. Previous studies showed that a mean time from intubation till sedatives was 27 minutes (2), and propofol was started at a low dose of 30 mcg/kg/min for ED intubation (3).
Approximately 5.5% of all patients or 4% of survivors of patients who had invasive mechanical ventilation in the ED experienced awareness during paralysis. They also were at high risk for PTSD.
1. Fuller BM, Pappal RD, Mohr NM, Roberts BW, Faine B, Yeary J, Sewatsky T, Johnson NJ, Driver BE, Ablordeppey E, Drewry AM, Wessman BT, Yan Y, Kollef MH, Carpenter CR, Avidan MS. Awareness With Paralysis Among Critically Ill Emergency Department Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study. Crit Care Med. 2022 Jul 22. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005626. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35866657.
2. Watt JM, Amini A, Traylor BR, Amini R, Sakles JC, Patanwala AE. Effect of paralytic type on time to post-intubation sedative use in the emergency department. Emerg Med J. 2013 Nov;30(11):893-5. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2012-201812. Epub 2012 Nov 8. PMID: 23139098.
3. Korinek JD, Thomas RM, Goddard LA, St John AE, Sakles JC, Patanwala AE. Comparison of rocuronium and succinylcholine on postintubation sedative and analgesic dosing in the emergency department. Eur J Emerg Med. 2014 Jun;21(3):206-11. doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0b013e3283606b89. PMID: 23510899.