UMEM Educational Pearls - Orthopedics

Category: Orthopedics

Title: Hamstring Injury

Keywords: hamstring, strain, muscle tear (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/8/2022 by Brian Corwell, MD
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Hamstring Injury

 

Prevalence varies by sport ranging from 8 to 25 percent with a high recurrence rate frequently during the ensuing sport season, usually in next 2 months but may extend up to one year!

 

Highest in sports that involve rapid acceleration and deceleration

            3 highest risk sports - football and men’s and women’s soccer

Average time lost 17-21 days

Injury much less common in younger athletes

 

The hamstring is composed of three muscles: the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus.

Primarily involved in knee flexion and hip extension

 

Biceps femoris is most commonly injured

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539862/figure/article-28873.image.f1

 

Simple grading system using 3 grades

Grade 1 – mild strain

Grade 2 – Partial tear

Grade 3 – Complete tear

Proximal injuries are more common than distal injuries, occurring at the musculotendinous junction

Avulsion fractures of the ischium occur rarely occur in adults but may occur in skeletally immature athletes

https://radiopaedia.org/cases/ischial-tuberosity-avulsion

When watching a sporting event you will see the athlete grab the buttock or upper thigh. They usually cannot return to play. Most grade 2 or 3 injuries will require crutches. If seeing them the following day significant bruising may be seen.

Numerous modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors have been identified including:

*Weakness of ipsilateral quadriceps or contralateral hamstring, hamstring, hip & quadriceps tightness/poor flexibility, poor warm-up, sudden increased training volume and muscle fatigue.

*Older age (risk increase may begin as early as age 23)

Prior hamstring injury (up to 6x increased risk)

            **Premature return to sport increases the risk of reinjury

Differential Diagnosis:  Lumbar radiculopathy, sciatic nerve irritation or compression, stress fracture of femur.

 

Refer to sports medicine/orthopedics for avulsion injuries, complete proximal complete tears and partial or complete distal tears

 

 

 

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Presentations of Fracture in Nursemaids Elbow

Keywords: Elbow, fracture, radiology (PubMed Search)

Posted: 11/27/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 1/16/2022)
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Presentations of Fracture in Nursemaids Elbow

 

Study group:   Visits by children younger than 10 years, with a diagnosis of radial head subluxation at 1 of 45 pediatric EDs from 2010 to 2018.

Retrospective cohort study of 88,466 ED visits for radial head subluxation

Outcome:  Missed fracture (return visit for upper extremity fracture within 7 days of the index visit).

Results

Median patient age was 2.1 years,

59% of visits were by female patients,

60% of cases occurred in the left arm.

Radiography was performed at 28.5% of visits (Range 19.8% to 41.7%.)

Extremity fractures were observed in 247 cases, representing 0.3% of the cohort.

The odds of missed fracture were higher in:

  1. Children older than 6 years
  2. Children who underwent radiography at the index visit
  3. Children receiving acetaminophen or ibuprofen in the ED.

Summary:  

Only 0.3% of children with a diagnosis of radial head subluxation subsequently received a diagnosis of an upper extremity fracture within 7 days of the index visit.

Missed fractures were commonly about the elbow such as a supracondylar fracture. However, this study also found a significant proportion of missed fractures in other locations (e.g. shoulder, wrist), highlighting the importance of a careful physical examination, and the limitations of localizing pain in younger children. 

Recurrence was common, and the risk of recurrence decreased with increasing age at first presentation.  Overall, radial head subluxation recurrence was 8.7% after the first visit VERSUS 12%-13% in children younger than 2 years. THese patients are likely to return to the ED with a recurrence within 2 years. These findings should help inform anticipatory guidance to parents regarding the risk of recurrence based on their child’s age.

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Nursemaid's elbow

Keywords: Elbow, dislocation, instability (PubMed Search)

Posted: 11/13/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 1/16/2022)
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The classic mechanism for nursemaids elbow is axial traction on a pronated forearm and extended elbow.

The force allows a portion of the annular ligament to slip over the radius.

Consider this diagnosis with other mechanisms of injury especially if the exam is not suggestive of fracture.

Suspect in a patient in minimal distress with arm held semi flexed and pronated.

 

A recent retrospective study looked at other mechanisms of injury.

 

69 subjects with a median age of 2.5 years

The most common mechanisms of injury were fall (57%), direct hit to the elbow (16%), and rolling over (7%).

Some studies note the left elbow is more commonly involved but this is likely due to most guardians being right-handed, thereby holding the child’s left hand

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Sex differences in concussion

Keywords: Concussion, sex differences, head injury (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/23/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 1/16/2022)
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The total number of concussions tripled among female athletes aged 14 to 18 years during a 20-year period from 2000 to 2019.

Query of National Injury Surveillance System

Female athletes with sports-related concussions or closed head injuries who presented to the ED

In 14- to 18-year-old females the number of concussions increased from 9,000 in 2000 to 32,000 in 2019.

65% of all concussions among female athletes occurred in soccer, basketball, cheerleading, softball, and volleyball.

Association between an increase of 308.7 annual concussions per 10,000 annual female participants.

In a study of more than 80,000 teenage players across US high schools, female athletes are 1.9 times more likely to develop a sports-related concussion than are their male counterparts in comparable sports.

In boys, the most common way of becoming concussed was through direct contact with another player (50%)

In girls, the most common way of becoming concussed was after colliding with another object (ball/goalpost).

This mechanism may partly explain another finding:  Boys were also more likely to be removed from play immediately after a suspected head injury than were girls

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: The Role of Active Rehabilitation in Concussion Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Keywords: Concussion, active recovery, exercise (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/5/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Emailed: 10/10/2021) (Updated: 1/16/2022)
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The Role of Active Rehabilitation in Concussion Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

 

Concussions make up 70% to 90% of all traumatic brain injuries

During the recovery process, prolonged rest has been shown to slow recovery and precipitate secondary symptoms of fatigue, reactive depression, anxiety and physical deconditioning.

As a result, a gradual increase in low-level activities has been encouraged after 24-48 h of rest.

23 articles for a total of 2547 concussed individuals, 49% female, both kids and adults. Included both sport related and non-sport related concussion.

None of the studies reported any adverse events in symptomatic participants after subthreshold exacerbation aerobic exercise.

Duration ranged from 15-20 minutes per session or until symptom exacerbation.

Subthreshold activity generally targeted 80% of max heart rate achieved during a graded symptom threshold test.

Every study showed improved concussion symptom scores with a physical activity intervention.

Most common treatment duration was 6 weeks (Range 1-12 wk)

Best outcomes if initiated with 2-3 weeks after injury but intervention beneficial in chronic phases of recovery as well.

The intervention of physical activity decreases post concussion symptom scores and the overall effect across studies was large and positive.

Optimal intensity, duration and time to initiation of exercise intervention needs further investigation.

Exercise effect is likely multifactorial including:

  1. Improvement in cerebral autoregulation
  2. Increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor which promotes neuron growth and repair
  3. May reduce fear of exercise and perception of illness and injury
  4. Reintegration with social environments and support

One of the best effects I have seen in treating these patients is that active exercise allows a proactive approach to patient recovery. Patients become less focused on every minor symptom or irregularity.

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Exertional Heat Stroke at the Boston Marathon

Keywords: heat stroke, marathon (PubMed Search)

Posted: 9/14/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Emailed: 9/25/2021) (Updated: 1/16/2022)
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Exertional Heat Stroke at the Boston Marathon

 

Study goal: To assess for possible associations between exertional heat stroke (EHS) and sex, age, prior performance and environmental conditions

Data sourced from 2015-2019 Boston Marathon races.

Why Boston:  The Boston marathon is one of the only marathons that require qualifying times for entry for a majority of runners which yields a high proportion of faster than average runners. The race is frequently characterized by extreme weather conditions, including warm and humid days.

Results: 136,161 race starters. Incidence of EHS was 3.7 cases per 10,000 starters.

                Note: Twin Cities Marathon found 3 cases per 10,000 runners.

Mean age of runners was 43.3. Female 45%, male 55%.

Significant associations between sex and age, sex and start wave and age group and start wave.

Sex not associated with increased EHS incidence.

Age < 30 and assignment to the first 2 waves (faster runners) was significantly associated with increased EHS.

All cases of EHS occurred with average wet bulb globe temperatures (WBGT) were 17° – 20° C.

Linear correlation between EHS and incidence in addition to increases in WBGT from start to peak.

72.5% of cases were race finishers. Non finishers presented after mile 18.

Almost 30% developed post treatment hypothermia.

Almost 2/3rds were discharged directly, the remainder required hospital transport.

Authors estimate needing at least 4 ice water immersion tubs per 10,000 runners with potential of needing 8-10 if race day is humid.

Conclusions: Overall, EHS represented a small percentage of medical encounters but required significant resources.

Younger and faster runners are at high risk of EHS.

Greater increases in heat stress from start to peak worsens risk.

 

Definitions: WGBT - The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) is a measure of the heat stress in direct sunlight, which takes into account: ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, sun angle and cloud cover (solar radiation). This differs from the heat index, which takes into consideration temperature and humidity and is calculated for shady areas. 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS)

Keywords: pressure, exercise, lower extremity (PubMed Search)

Posted: 8/14/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 1/16/2022)
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Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS)

 

Similar pathology to acute compartment syndrome except symptoms are related to activity (frequently running) and abate with rest.

95% involve lower extremity

Inappropriately elevated tissue pressure in one or more lower leg compartments associated with exercise

Anterior compartment most frequently involved

As tissue pressure increases, local perfusion is decreased. This leads to symptoms of pain, pressure, cramping and paresthesias.  

Also commonly associated with team sports such as soccer, lacrosse and field hockey.

More likely in competitive athletes than recreational.

Patient will be symptom free at time of ED evaluation

Make diagnosis of CECS with history

  1. Pain must be induced with exercise
  2. Usually limited to a single compartment, frequently the anterior
  3. Pain occurs at predictable time in exercise and forces athlete to stop running
  4. Pain resolves with rest
  5. If witnessed, tenderness is present only in the involved compartment and not elsewhere

Diagnosis with compartment pressure measurements done in office with treadmill exercise.

Non operatively, gait retraining programs have been shown to help symptoms. Appropriate if symptoms are mild.

Surgical treatment involves a minimally invasive fasciotomy

Post surgery success rates are between 63-100% with recurrence rates up to 20%

 

 


 

 

Low dose ketamine was compared  to morphine for the treatment of patients with long bone fractures

 

 

126 patients with upper and lower extremity long bone fractures were divided into two treatment groups

  1. IV morphine at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg
  2. IV ketamine at a dose of 0.5mg/kg

 

Pain scores were compared pre and at 10 minutes post treatment

Pain severity significantly decreased in both groups to a similar degree

Increase adverse effects (emergence phenomenon) noted in ketamine group but all effects resolved spontaneously without intervention.

Conclusion:  Analgesic effect of ketamine is similar to morphine in patients with long bone fractures.

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: NSAIDs for lower back pain (LBP)

Keywords: Lower back pain, NSAIDs (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/10/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 1/16/2022)
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NSAIDs for lower back pain (LBP)

 

NSAIDs are recommended for first line treatment of lower back pain.

Ibuprofen (600mg), ketorolac (10mg) and diclofenac (50mg)  were compared.

3 arm, double-blinded study in an ED population with musculoskeletal LBP.

66 patients in each arm.

Outcomes via telephone interview 5 days later

Primary outcome was improvement in Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ).

Lower scores indicate better LBP functional outcomes.

Secondary outcomes:  Pain intensity and the presence of stomach irritation.

Baseline characteristics similar in 3 groups.

Results:  No significant differences between 3 arms in primary outcome.

Ibuprofen 9.4, ketorolac 11.9, and diclofenac 10.9 (p = 0.34).

Ketorolac group reported less overall pain intensity at day 5.

Ketorolac group reported less stomach irritation that the other drugs ((p < 0.01).

While there was no differences in terms of functional outcomes, there may be a benefit of using ketorolac in terms of overall pain intensity and stomach irritation. This would benefit from further study in a larger population in order to draw definitive conclusions.

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

Keywords: Exercise, wheezing, bronchospasm (PubMed Search)

Posted: 6/26/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 1/16/2022)
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You are covering a sporting event or working an ED shift when a young adolescent athlete without significant PMH presents with SOB and wheezing associated with exercise.

You immediately think exercise-induced asthma, prescribe a short-acting bronchodilator and pat yourself on the back.

While you may be right, there is increasing recognition of an alternative diagnosis

Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

During high intensity exercise, the larynx can partially close, thereby causing a reduction in normal airflow. This results in the reported symptoms of SOB and wheezing.

This diagnosis has previously been called exercise induced vocal cord dysfunction. As the narrowing most frequently occurs ABOVE the level of the vocal cord, EILO is a more correct term.

While exercise induced bronchoconstriction has a prevalence of 5-20%, EILO is less common with a prevalence of 5-6%.

Patients are typically adolescents, with exercise associated wheezing and SOB, frequently during competitive or very strenuous events. Wheezing is inspiratory and high-pitched. Symptoms are unlikely to be present at time of medical contact unless you are at the event as resolution occurs within 5 minutes though associated cough or throat discomfort can persist after exercise cessation. EIB symptoms typically last up to 30 minutes following exercise.

Inhaler therapy is unlikely to help though some athletes report subjective partial relief. This may be explained as approximately 10% of individuals have both EIB and EILO.

In athletes with respiratory symptoms referred to asthma clinic, EILO was found in 35%.

Consider EILO in athletes with unexplained respiratory symptoms especially in those with ongoing symptoms despite appropriate therapy for EIB.

 


Hand elevation test

 

  • Hand elevation has been known to reproduce the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

 

  • This phenomenon prompted the idea of developing a simple hand elevation test to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome. 

 

  • To perform: Ask the patient to elevate both arms in the air for one minute. Hands are raised actively and without strain, keeping the elbows and shoulders relatively loose.

 

  • A positive test reproduces symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. 

 

  • The hand elevation test has a high sensitivity (75-86%) and specificity (89-98.5%) and may be comparable to or likely better than other provocative tests.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IO2qC5qHVFE

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: ESR and CRP in Spinal Infection

Keywords: Epidural abscess, back pain, vertebral osteomyelitis (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/8/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Both erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are highly sensitive (84-100%) for spinal infections and are observed in >80% with vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscesses.

 


ESR 

Most sensitive and specific serum marker, usually elevated in both spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and vertebral osteomyelitis.  

ESR was elevated in 94-100% of patients with SEA vs. only 33% of non-SEA patients

Mean ESR in patients with SEA was significantly elevated (51-77mm/hour)

CRP 

Not highly specific

Less useful for acute diagnosis since CRP levels rise faster and return to baseline faster than ESR (elevated CRP seen in 87% of patients with SEA as well as in 50% of patients with spine pain not due to a SEA)

Better used as a marker of response to treatment.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) for spinal infection

 

Sensitive for spinal infection but not specific

Elevated ESR is observed in greater than 80% of patients with vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess

ESR is the most sensitive and specific serum marker for spinal infection

               Usually elevated in acute presentations of SEA and vertebral osteomyelitis

ESR was elevated in 94-100% of patients with SEA vs. only 33% of non-SEA patients

Mean ESR in patients with SEA was significantly elevated (51-77mm/hour)

Infection is unlikely in patients with an ESR less than 20 mm/h.

Incorporating ESR into an ED decision guideline may improve diagnostic delays and help distinguish patients in whom MRI may be performed on a non-emergent basis

 

 

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Emergency department patients with mTBI prescribed light exercise

Keywords: Concussion, mTBI, exercise prescription (PubMed Search)

Posted: 4/10/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 1/16/2022)
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Study Question:  A recent study investigated whether adult patients presenting to the ED with a diagnosis of mTBI prescribed light exercise were less likely to develop persistent postconcussion symptoms.

Setting:  Randomized controlled trial conducted in three Canadian EDs. Consecutive, adults (18–64 years) seen in ED with a mTBI sustained within the preceding 48 hours.

The intervention group received discharge instructions prescribing 30 minutes of daily light exercise.

The control group was given standard mTBI instructions advising gradual return to exercise following symptom resolution.

Outcome:  The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with postconcussion symptoms at 30 days,

A total of 367 patients were enrolled. Median age was 32 years Male 43%/Female 57%.

Result:  There was no difference in the proportion of patients with postconcussion symptoms at 30 days. There were no differences in median change of concussion testing scores, median number of return PCP visits, median number of missed school or work days, or unplanned return ED visits within 30 days. Participants in the control group reported fewer minutes of light exercise at 7 days (30 vs 35).

Conclusion

Prescribing light exercise for acute mTBI, demonstrated no differences in recovery or health care utilization outcomes.

Extrapolating from studies in the athletic population, there may be a patient benefit for light exercise prescription.

Make sure that the patient is only exercising to their symptomatic threshold as we recommend with concussed athletes. Previous studies have shown that athletes with the highest post injury activity levels had poorer visual memory and reaction time scores than those with moderate activity levels.

 

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Patellofemoral Syndrome

Keywords: patellofemoral, knee, pain (PubMed Search)

Posted: 3/13/2021 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 1/16/2022)
Click here to contact Michael Bond, MD

Bottom Line: In a recent meta-analysis the risk factors for patellofemoral syndrome are weak hip abduction strength, quadricep weakness in military recruits, and increased hip strength in adolescence.

PatelloFemoral Syndrome: Patellofemoral pain is not clearly understood and is believed to be multi-factorial.  Numerous factors have been proposed including muscle weakness, damage to cartilage, patella maltracking, as well as others.  Patient often complain of anterior knee that is aggravated by walking up and down stairs or squatting. Patellofemoral pain is extremely common. In the general population the annual prevalence for patellofemoral pain is approximately 22.7%, and in adolescents it is 28.9%.

Though commonly taught, the following have no evidence to support that they are a risk factor for patellofemoral syndrome: Age, Height, Weight, BMI, Body Fat or Q Angle of patella

 
 

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Home management versus PCP follow-up of patients with distal radius buckle (torus) fractures

 

A recent study investigated outcomes of patients with distal radius buckle fractures who were randomized to

 

  1. Home removal of splint and physician follow-up as needed (home management)  

 

Versus

 

  1. Prescribed PCP follow-up in 1-2 weeks


 

Noninferior study

 

Torus/buckle fractures of the distal radius are the most common fractures in childhood occurring on average in 1 in 25 children

 

This is a stable fracture typically treated with removable wrist splint and very rarely require orthopedic intervention

 

Outcome: functional recovery at 3 weeks

 

Randomized controlled trial at a tertiary care children’s hospital

 

All radiographs reviewed by pediatric radiologist with MSK specialization

 

149 patients. Mean age 9.5 years. 54.4% male

 

Telephone follow-up at 3 and 6 weeks following ED discharge by blinded interviewer

 

Primary outcome was comparison of Activities Scale for Kids-performance scores between groups at 3 weeks

 

Outcomes:  Home management performance score was 95.4% and PCP follow-up group was 95.9%. Mean cost savings were $100.10.

 

Conclusion:  Home management is at least as good as PCP follow-up with respect to functional recovery in ED patients with distal radius buckle fractures.

 

 

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: What time of day is best for exercise to achieve weight loss goals?

Keywords: diabetes, exercise, weight loss (PubMed Search)

Posted: 2/13/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 1/16/2022)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

What time of day is best for exercise to achieve weight loss goals?

 

Working out in the morning has traditionally held the edge, especially if done on an empty stomach.

Upon walking, elevated levels of cortisol and GH will aid in fat metabolism.

Switching to a morning workout may also decrease appetite throughout the day.

Morning exercise may also induce significant circadian phase?shifting effects. Patients report feeling more alert in the morning and get more tired at night. This may “force” people to get increased rest as poor sleep quality and duration has been associated with weight gain. 

Moderate intensity aerobic exercise has been shown to cause immediate mood improvement and mental productivity. These effects can last up to 12 hours and may be a simple aid to combat job stress.

However, a recent small study looked at this question with a group of men at high risk for Type 2 diabetes.

Those that exercised in the morning had better blood sugar control and lost more abdominal fat than those who exercised in the morning.

Study:  32 adult males (58 ± 7 years) at risk for or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes performed 12 weeks of supervised exercise training either:

In the morning (8.00–10.00 a.m., N = 12) OR

In the afternoon (3.00–6.00 p.m., N = 20)

Test: Graded cycling test with ECG monitoring until exhaustion

Results:  Compared to those who trained in the morning, participants who trained in the afternoon experienced superior beneficial effects of exercise training on peripheral insulin sensitivity, insulin?mediated suppression of adipose tissue lipolysis, fasting plasma glucose levels, exercise performance and fat mass.

Conclusion:  Metabolically compromised patients may benefit from shifting their exercise routine to the afternoon from the morning. Ultimately, any exercise is great in this population, but this study may be worth sharing to your patients.

 

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A recent retrospective observational study looked at the association of oral antibiotics (primarily fluroquinolones) and tendon rupture.

Outcome data is very interesting for our practice, deviates from traditional teaching.

Population:  1 million Medicare fee for service beneficiaries from 2007-2016 (>65 years old)

Antibiotics queried:  Seven total oral antibiotics of mixed class:

  1. Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin)
  2. Other:  Amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin and cephalexin.

 

Outcome measures:  all combined tendon ruptures and 3 by anatomic site (Achilles, rotator cuff {RC} and other)

Results:  Of the 3 quinolones, only LEVOfloxacin showed a significant increase in risk of tendon rupture (16% for RC) and (120% for Achilles) in a 1 month window. The others did not show an increased risk

Among the other antibiotics, cephalexin showed an increase risk across all anatomic sites.

The authors note that the risk with levofloxacin never exceeded the risk of cephalexin in any comparison!

 

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Chief complaint: "My hip snaps when I exercise"

Keywords: Hip pain, snapping hip, tendon (PubMed Search)

Posted: 12/27/2020 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 1/16/2022)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Chief complaint:  “My hip snaps when I exercise”

Both athletes and non-athletes may report a “snapping” sound with certain movements

This may affect up to 10% of the population

May be associated with activities than involve repetitive hip flexion

Symptoms may be due to an internal or an external cause

External causes are usually due to a tendon passing over a bony prominence

This can be felt as either an audible sensation and/or even a palpable snap

This may or may not involve pain or discomfort

This is most commonly due to a benign cause

During movements in flexion, extension or combined with internal rotation the iliotibial band may move over the greater trochanter.

Alternatively, the hamstring tendon may pass over the ischial tuberosity

There are several other causes with similar mechanisms

Symptoms are usually minimal and not serious

This can be reproduced on bedside clinical exam

               Ask the patient to identify the area of snapping with one finger which will help with anatomic localization

First line therapy is physical therapy which focuses on:

Improving muscle length if muscle is too tight   OR

Improving neuromuscular activation if problem is due to excessive muscle activation

 

 

 

 

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Postural Testing in Concussion

Keywords: Balance, mBESS, concussion (PubMed Search)

Posted: 12/12/2020 by Brian Corwell, MD
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

The Romberg test is part of the standard neurologic examination. The patient is asked to stand with feet together, hand on hips/sides and the eyes are closed. Vestibular and proprioceptive input is being tested. 

This test is not very sensitive overall, but especially in concussed athletes.

Many concussed athletes are able to stand relatively stable despite their neurologic injury.

In order to better identify postural instability in concussion, we perform 3 separate balance tests (modified balance error scoring system, mBESS).

A) Romberg

B) Single leg stance

  1. Standing on the non dominant foot, the hip is flexed to approximately 30° and the is knee flexed to approximately 45°.
  2. NonDominant Leg: The nondominant leg is defined as the opposite leg of the preferred kicking leg

C) Tandem Stance

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Boaz_Saffer/publication/309591285/figure/fig2/AS:669641529626644@1536666390860/Balance-Error-Scoring-System-BESS-performed-on-firm-surface-A-C_W640.jpg

 

Have patient stand quietly with hands on hips

Have patient close eyes and start 20 second trial

If error occurs tell patient to return to start as quickly as possible

Examples of errors: opening eyes, lifting hands, falling out of position