UMEM Educational Pearls - Orthopedics

Category: Orthopedics

Title: Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS)

Keywords: pressure, exercise, lower extremity (PubMed Search)

Posted: 8/14/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS)

 

Similar pathology to acute compartment syndrome except symptoms are related to activity (frequently running) and abate with rest.

95% involve lower extremity

Inappropriately elevated tissue pressure in one or more lower leg compartments associated with exercise

Anterior compartment most frequently involved

As tissue pressure increases, local perfusion is decreased. This leads to symptoms of pain, pressure, cramping and paresthesias.  

Also commonly associated with team sports such as soccer, lacrosse and field hockey.

More likely in competitive athletes than recreational.

Patient will be symptom free at time of ED evaluation

Make diagnosis of CECS with history

  1. Pain must be induced with exercise
  2. Usually limited to a single compartment, frequently the anterior
  3. Pain occurs at predictable time in exercise and forces athlete to stop running
  4. Pain resolves with rest
  5. If witnessed, tenderness is present only in the involved compartment and not elsewhere

Diagnosis with compartment pressure measurements done in office with treadmill exercise.

Non operatively, gait retraining programs have been shown to help symptoms. Appropriate if symptoms are mild.

Surgical treatment involves a minimally invasive fasciotomy

Post surgery success rates are between 63-100% with recurrence rates up to 20%

 

 


 

 

Low dose ketamine was compared  to morphine for the treatment of patients with long bone fractures

 

 

126 patients with upper and lower extremity long bone fractures were divided into two treatment groups

  1. IV morphine at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg
  2. IV ketamine at a dose of 0.5mg/kg

 

Pain scores were compared pre and at 10 minutes post treatment

Pain severity significantly decreased in both groups to a similar degree

Increase adverse effects (emergence phenomenon) noted in ketamine group but all effects resolved spontaneously without intervention.

Conclusion:  Analgesic effect of ketamine is similar to morphine in patients with long bone fractures.

 

Show References


Category: Orthopedics

Title: NSAIDs for lower back pain (LBP)

Keywords: Lower back pain, NSAIDs (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/10/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

NSAIDs for lower back pain (LBP)

 

NSAIDs are recommended for first line treatment of lower back pain.

Ibuprofen (600mg), ketorolac (10mg) and diclofenac (50mg)  were compared.

3 arm, double-blinded study in an ED population with musculoskeletal LBP.

66 patients in each arm.

Outcomes via telephone interview 5 days later

Primary outcome was improvement in Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ).

Lower scores indicate better LBP functional outcomes.

Secondary outcomes:  Pain intensity and the presence of stomach irritation.

Baseline characteristics similar in 3 groups.

Results:  No significant differences between 3 arms in primary outcome.

Ibuprofen 9.4, ketorolac 11.9, and diclofenac 10.9 (p = 0.34).

Ketorolac group reported less overall pain intensity at day 5.

Ketorolac group reported less stomach irritation that the other drugs ((p < 0.01).

While there was no differences in terms of functional outcomes, there may be a benefit of using ketorolac in terms of overall pain intensity and stomach irritation. This would benefit from further study in a larger population in order to draw definitive conclusions.

 

Show References


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

Keywords: Exercise, wheezing, bronchospasm (PubMed Search)

Posted: 6/26/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

You are covering a sporting event or working an ED shift when a young adolescent athlete without significant PMH presents with SOB and wheezing associated with exercise.

You immediately think exercise-induced asthma, prescribe a short-acting bronchodilator and pat yourself on the back.

While you may be right, there is increasing recognition of an alternative diagnosis

Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

During high intensity exercise, the larynx can partially close, thereby causing a reduction in normal airflow. This results in the reported symptoms of SOB and wheezing.

This diagnosis has previously been called exercise induced vocal cord dysfunction. As the narrowing most frequently occurs ABOVE the level of the vocal cord, EILO is a more correct term.

While exercise induced bronchoconstriction has a prevalence of 5-20%, EILO is less common with a prevalence of 5-6%.

Patients are typically adolescents, with exercise associated wheezing and SOB, frequently during competitive or very strenuous events. Wheezing is inspiratory and high-pitched. Symptoms are unlikely to be present at time of medical contact unless you are at the event as resolution occurs within 5 minutes though associated cough or throat discomfort can persist after exercise cessation. EIB symptoms typically last up to 30 minutes following exercise.

Inhaler therapy is unlikely to help though some athletes report subjective partial relief. This may be explained as approximately 10% of individuals have both EIB and EILO.

In athletes with respiratory symptoms referred to asthma clinic, EILO was found in 35%.

Consider EILO in athletes with unexplained respiratory symptoms especially in those with ongoing symptoms despite appropriate therapy for EIB.

 


Hand elevation test

 

  • Hand elevation has been known to reproduce the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

 

  • This phenomenon prompted the idea of developing a simple hand elevation test to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome. 

 

  • To perform: Ask the patient to elevate both arms in the air for one minute. Hands are raised actively and without strain, keeping the elbows and shoulders relatively loose.

 

  • A positive test reproduces symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. 

 

  • The hand elevation test has a high sensitivity (75-86%) and specificity (89-98.5%) and may be comparable to or likely better than other provocative tests.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IO2qC5qHVFE

Show References


Category: Orthopedics

Title: ESR and CRP in Spinal Infection

Keywords: Epidural abscess, back pain, vertebral osteomyelitis (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/8/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Both erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are highly sensitive (84-100%) for spinal infections and are observed in >80% with vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscesses.

 


ESR 

Most sensitive and specific serum marker, usually elevated in both spinal epidural abscess (SEA) and vertebral osteomyelitis.  

ESR was elevated in 94-100% of patients with SEA vs. only 33% of non-SEA patients

Mean ESR in patients with SEA was significantly elevated (51-77mm/hour)

CRP 

Not highly specific

Less useful for acute diagnosis since CRP levels rise faster and return to baseline faster than ESR (elevated CRP seen in 87% of patients with SEA as well as in 50% of patients with spine pain not due to a SEA)

Better used as a marker of response to treatment.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

Show References


Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) for spinal infection

 

Sensitive for spinal infection but not specific

Elevated ESR is observed in greater than 80% of patients with vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess

ESR is the most sensitive and specific serum marker for spinal infection

               Usually elevated in acute presentations of SEA and vertebral osteomyelitis

ESR was elevated in 94-100% of patients with SEA vs. only 33% of non-SEA patients

Mean ESR in patients with SEA was significantly elevated (51-77mm/hour)

Infection is unlikely in patients with an ESR less than 20 mm/h.

Incorporating ESR into an ED decision guideline may improve diagnostic delays and help distinguish patients in whom MRI may be performed on a non-emergent basis

 

 

 

 

Show References


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Emergency department patients with mTBI prescribed light exercise

Keywords: Concussion, mTBI, exercise prescription (PubMed Search)

Posted: 4/10/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Study Question:  A recent study investigated whether adult patients presenting to the ED with a diagnosis of mTBI prescribed light exercise were less likely to develop persistent postconcussion symptoms.

Setting:  Randomized controlled trial conducted in three Canadian EDs. Consecutive, adults (18–64 years) seen in ED with a mTBI sustained within the preceding 48 hours.

The intervention group received discharge instructions prescribing 30 minutes of daily light exercise.

The control group was given standard mTBI instructions advising gradual return to exercise following symptom resolution.

Outcome:  The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with postconcussion symptoms at 30 days,

A total of 367 patients were enrolled. Median age was 32 years Male 43%/Female 57%.

Result:  There was no difference in the proportion of patients with postconcussion symptoms at 30 days. There were no differences in median change of concussion testing scores, median number of return PCP visits, median number of missed school or work days, or unplanned return ED visits within 30 days. Participants in the control group reported fewer minutes of light exercise at 7 days (30 vs 35).

Conclusion

Prescribing light exercise for acute mTBI, demonstrated no differences in recovery or health care utilization outcomes.

Extrapolating from studies in the athletic population, there may be a patient benefit for light exercise prescription.

Make sure that the patient is only exercising to their symptomatic threshold as we recommend with concussed athletes. Previous studies have shown that athletes with the highest post injury activity levels had poorer visual memory and reaction time scores than those with moderate activity levels.

 

 

 

Show References


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Patellofemoral Syndrome

Keywords: patellofemoral, knee, pain (PubMed Search)

Posted: 3/13/2021 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Michael Bond, MD

Bottom Line: In a recent meta-analysis the risk factors for patellofemoral syndrome are weak hip abduction strength, quadricep weakness in military recruits, and increased hip strength in adolescence.

PatelloFemoral Syndrome: Patellofemoral pain is not clearly understood and is believed to be multi-factorial.  Numerous factors have been proposed including muscle weakness, damage to cartilage, patella maltracking, as well as others.  Patient often complain of anterior knee that is aggravated by walking up and down stairs or squatting. Patellofemoral pain is extremely common. In the general population the annual prevalence for patellofemoral pain is approximately 22.7%, and in adolescents it is 28.9%.

Though commonly taught, the following have no evidence to support that they are a risk factor for patellofemoral syndrome: Age, Height, Weight, BMI, Body Fat or Q Angle of patella

 
 

Show References


Home management versus PCP follow-up of patients with distal radius buckle (torus) fractures

 

A recent study investigated outcomes of patients with distal radius buckle fractures who were randomized to

 

  1. Home removal of splint and physician follow-up as needed (home management)  

 

Versus

 

  1. Prescribed PCP follow-up in 1-2 weeks


 

Noninferior study

 

Torus/buckle fractures of the distal radius are the most common fractures in childhood occurring on average in 1 in 25 children

 

This is a stable fracture typically treated with removable wrist splint and very rarely require orthopedic intervention

 

Outcome: functional recovery at 3 weeks

 

Randomized controlled trial at a tertiary care children’s hospital

 

All radiographs reviewed by pediatric radiologist with MSK specialization

 

149 patients. Mean age 9.5 years. 54.4% male

 

Telephone follow-up at 3 and 6 weeks following ED discharge by blinded interviewer

 

Primary outcome was comparison of Activities Scale for Kids-performance scores between groups at 3 weeks

 

Outcomes:  Home management performance score was 95.4% and PCP follow-up group was 95.9%. Mean cost savings were $100.10.

 

Conclusion:  Home management is at least as good as PCP follow-up with respect to functional recovery in ED patients with distal radius buckle fractures.

 

 

 

 

Show References


Category: Orthopedics

Title: What time of day is best for exercise to achieve weight loss goals?

Keywords: diabetes, exercise, weight loss (PubMed Search)

Posted: 2/13/2021 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

What time of day is best for exercise to achieve weight loss goals?

 

Working out in the morning has traditionally held the edge, especially if done on an empty stomach.

Upon walking, elevated levels of cortisol and GH will aid in fat metabolism.

Switching to a morning workout may also decrease appetite throughout the day.

Morning exercise may also induce significant circadian phase?shifting effects. Patients report feeling more alert in the morning and get more tired at night. This may “force” people to get increased rest as poor sleep quality and duration has been associated with weight gain. 

Moderate intensity aerobic exercise has been shown to cause immediate mood improvement and mental productivity. These effects can last up to 12 hours and may be a simple aid to combat job stress.

However, a recent small study looked at this question with a group of men at high risk for Type 2 diabetes.

Those that exercised in the morning had better blood sugar control and lost more abdominal fat than those who exercised in the morning.

Study:  32 adult males (58 ± 7 years) at risk for or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes performed 12 weeks of supervised exercise training either:

In the morning (8.00–10.00 a.m., N = 12) OR

In the afternoon (3.00–6.00 p.m., N = 20)

Test: Graded cycling test with ECG monitoring until exhaustion

Results:  Compared to those who trained in the morning, participants who trained in the afternoon experienced superior beneficial effects of exercise training on peripheral insulin sensitivity, insulin?mediated suppression of adipose tissue lipolysis, fasting plasma glucose levels, exercise performance and fat mass.

Conclusion:  Metabolically compromised patients may benefit from shifting their exercise routine to the afternoon from the morning. Ultimately, any exercise is great in this population, but this study may be worth sharing to your patients.

 

Show References


A recent retrospective observational study looked at the association of oral antibiotics (primarily fluroquinolones) and tendon rupture.

Outcome data is very interesting for our practice, deviates from traditional teaching.

Population:  1 million Medicare fee for service beneficiaries from 2007-2016 (>65 years old)

Antibiotics queried:  Seven total oral antibiotics of mixed class:

  1. Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin)
  2. Other:  Amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin and cephalexin.

 

Outcome measures:  all combined tendon ruptures and 3 by anatomic site (Achilles, rotator cuff {RC} and other)

Results:  Of the 3 quinolones, only LEVOfloxacin showed a significant increase in risk of tendon rupture (16% for RC) and (120% for Achilles) in a 1 month window. The others did not show an increased risk

Among the other antibiotics, cephalexin showed an increase risk across all anatomic sites.

The authors note that the risk with levofloxacin never exceeded the risk of cephalexin in any comparison!

 

 

 

Show References


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Chief complaint: "My hip snaps when I exercise"

Keywords: Hip pain, snapping hip, tendon (PubMed Search)

Posted: 12/27/2020 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Chief complaint:  “My hip snaps when I exercise”

Both athletes and non-athletes may report a “snapping” sound with certain movements

This may affect up to 10% of the population

May be associated with activities than involve repetitive hip flexion

Symptoms may be due to an internal or an external cause

External causes are usually due to a tendon passing over a bony prominence

This can be felt as either an audible sensation and/or even a palpable snap

This may or may not involve pain or discomfort

This is most commonly due to a benign cause

During movements in flexion, extension or combined with internal rotation the iliotibial band may move over the greater trochanter.

Alternatively, the hamstring tendon may pass over the ischial tuberosity

There are several other causes with similar mechanisms

Symptoms are usually minimal and not serious

This can be reproduced on bedside clinical exam

               Ask the patient to identify the area of snapping with one finger which will help with anatomic localization

First line therapy is physical therapy which focuses on:

Improving muscle length if muscle is too tight   OR

Improving neuromuscular activation if problem is due to excessive muscle activation

 

 

 

 

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Postural Testing in Concussion

Keywords: Balance, mBESS, concussion (PubMed Search)

Posted: 12/12/2020 by Brian Corwell, MD
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

The Romberg test is part of the standard neurologic examination. The patient is asked to stand with feet together, hand on hips/sides and the eyes are closed. Vestibular and proprioceptive input is being tested. 

This test is not very sensitive overall, but especially in concussed athletes.

Many concussed athletes are able to stand relatively stable despite their neurologic injury.

In order to better identify postural instability in concussion, we perform 3 separate balance tests (modified balance error scoring system, mBESS).

A) Romberg

B) Single leg stance

  1. Standing on the non dominant foot, the hip is flexed to approximately 30° and the is knee flexed to approximately 45°.
  2. NonDominant Leg: The nondominant leg is defined as the opposite leg of the preferred kicking leg

C) Tandem Stance

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Boaz_Saffer/publication/309591285/figure/fig2/AS:669641529626644@1536666390860/Balance-Error-Scoring-System-BESS-performed-on-firm-surface-A-C_W640.jpg

 

Have patient stand quietly with hands on hips

Have patient close eyes and start 20 second trial

If error occurs tell patient to return to start as quickly as possible

Examples of errors: opening eyes, lifting hands, falling out of position

 

 

 

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Anterior shoulder pain

Keywords: Shoulder, biceps, tendon (PubMed Search)

Posted: 11/28/2020 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

A 25 year old athlete presents to the ED with right anterior shoulder pain.

Pain radiates into proximal biceps.

It is worse with heavy lifting and especially “pulling” exercises at the gym.

 

How do we evaluate for biceps tendonitis?

  1. Tenderness to palpation in the bicipital groove
  2. Speed’s test
  3. Yergason’s test

 

Pathology is often the long head of the biceps

https://physioworks.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/biceps-tendonitis.jpg

Start by palpating this area and attempt to reproduce the discomfort

Speed’s test

 

Yergason’s test

  • Arm is placed to patient’s side, in pronation and flexed to 90 degrees at elbow
  • Patient attempts to supinate and externally rotate arm against resistance
  • https://youtu.be/rQ2Mp6aSi88

 

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Ulnar Collateral ligament injuries of the elbow

Keywords: Elbow, dislocation, instability (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/25/2020 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Ulnar Collateral ligament injuries of the elbow

 

Overhead throwing athletes are at risk of insufficiency and rupture of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow

This can lead to valgus instability similar to what can occur in the knee

Overhead throwing places a significant valgus stress on the elbow

Though classically seen in baseball pitchers, may also be seen in javelin throwers and other high velocity throwing sports

In the acute setting may be seen after an elbow dislocation

History includes a “pop” and medial elbow pain following throwing activities

In cases of overuse injury, athletes will report a progressive loss of velocity, accuracy, and/or endurance with throwing.

The ulnar collateral ligament is the primary restraint to valgus stress from 30 to 120 degrees of flexion

One classic test for UCL instability is the milking maneuver

Patient may be sitting or standing

Patient’s forearm is supinated and elbow flexed at 90 degrees

A valgus force is applied by pulling the patient’s thumb while the examiner’s other hand stabilizes the elbow and palpates the medial joint line. 

Instability, pain or apprehension at the UCL is considered a positive test

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gbn24X_qqn0


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Keywords: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, neuropathy (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/10/2020 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

 

The hallmark of classic CTS:  pain or paresthesia (numbness and tingling) in a distribution that includes the median nerve territory, with involvement of the first three digits and the radial half of the fourth digit.

The symptoms of CTS are typically worse at night and often awaken patients from sleep.

Fixed sensory loss is usually a late finding

Involves the median-innervated fingers BUT spares the thenar eminence.

This pattern occurs because the palmar sensory cutaneous nerve arises proximal to the wrist and passes over, rather than through, the carpal tunnel.

Consider a more proximal lesion in cases involving sensory loss in the thenar eminence

            Example: pronator syndrome

 

 


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Physical injury patterns associated with physical elder abuse

Keywords: Elder abuse, bruising, trauma (PubMed Search)

Posted: 9/26/2020 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Physical injury patterns associated with physical elder abuse

 

Elder abuse is both common and underrecognized

Between 5 and 10% of US older adults are victims of elder abuse annually

For many older adults, contact with a health care provider may represent their only contact outside the home

Differentiating physical elder abuse from unintentional trauma can be very difficult

A recent study compared these two groups with a case-control design

Study cases: 100 successfully prosecuted physical elder abuse cases from a single urban ED

Physical abuse victims were more likely to have:

               Bruising (78% vs. 54%)

               Injuries to maxillofacial, dental or neck region (67% vs. 28%)

                              Particularly the LEFT side

                              Neck injuries 6x more common is assault

                              Ear injuries occurred in assault but not in falls

               Absence of fracture (8% vs. 22%)

               Less likely to have lower extremity injuries (9% vs. 41%)

22% of victims had no visible injuries

Most common mechanism assault with hands or fists and pushing or shoving causing a fall

Take home: Consider elder abuse especially in cases of the above red flags

              

              

 

 

Show References


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Thoracic Spine Fractures in the Panscan Era

Keywords: Spine fracture, decision rule (PubMed Search)

Posted: 9/12/2020 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

A recent study looked at thoracic spinal fractures in the era of the trauma panscan

NEXUS Chest CT Study from 2011 to 2014 at 9 Level I trauma centers.

Goal: To describe the identification rate and types of thoracic spine fractures.

Inclusion: age over 14 years, blunt trauma occurring within 6 hours of ED presentation, and chest CT imaging during ED evaluation.

11,477 subjects, 217 (1.9%) had a thoracic spine fracture

The majority of spine fractures in patients who had both chest x-ray and CT were observed on CT only (91%). 50% had more than 1 thoracic spinal level involved (mean 2.1). 22% had associated cervical fractures and 25% had associated lumbar fractures.

               64% had vertebral body fractures

               45% had posterior column fractures

               28% had compression fractures

               6% had burst fractures

Many patients (62%) had associated thoracic injuries such as

               Rib fractures (45%)

               PTX (36%)

               Clavicle fracture (18%)

               Scapular fracture (17%)

               Hemothorax (15%)

 

100 patients had clinically significant thoracic spine fractures.

 

Thoracic spine fractures are relatively uncommon in adult patients with blunt trauma.

If thoracic spine fracture is suspected clinically, radiography is not an effective screen and clinician should consider CT. If not suspected, guidelines discourage ordering CT to screen for this injury because of effective screening instruments, the diagnosis of clinically insignificant injuries and radiation exposure.

All clinically significant thoracic spine fractures would have been detected by the NEXUS Chest CT decision instrument.

 

https://www.mdcalc.com/nexus-chest-ct-decision-instrument-ct-imaging

 

Show References


Category: Orthopedics

Title: Diagnostic performance of Ultrasound for detection of pediatric elbow fractures

Keywords: Elbow, fracture, ultrasound (PubMed Search)

Posted: 8/12/2020 by Brian Corwell, MD (Emailed: 8/22/2020) (Updated: 9/23/2021)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Diagnostic performance of Ultrasonography for detection of pediatric elbow fracture

Elbow fractures account for approximately 15% of pediatric fractures

Fat pads are traditionally taught as a marker of fracture

In a cadaveric study:

Elbow effusions of 1-3 mL could be identified with ultrasound

Elbow effusions of 5-10 mL could be identified with plain film

Pediatric plain films are sometimes challenging to obtain and interpret compared to adults

              -More likely to be uncooperative in obtaining required views

              -Non-ossified epiphyses

Ultrasound may be used to detect

              -Cortical disruption and irregularity

              -Growth plate widening

              -Hematoma interposed between fracture fragments

              -Elevated posterior fat pad

Absence of elbow fracture was indicated by

              -Lack of cortical disruption

              -Absence of posterior fat pad sign

Meta-analysis of 10 articles totaling 519 patients using ultrasonography to detect elbow fractures

              Sensitivity 96%

              Specificity 89%

              False negative rate 3.7%             

For comparison, plain radiographs

Interpreted by peds EM physicians (87.5% sensitive and 100% specific)

Interpreted by radiology (96% sensitive, 100% specific)

 

Consider using ultrasound as a noninvasive, radiation-free modality for accurate diagnosis of pediatric elbow fractures.

 

Show References