Keywords: prehospital, EDTCO2, mortality (PubMed Search)
A retrospective study of 2 years of data from 24 trauma centers looking at end tidal CO2 as a predictor of mortality in trauma patients found:
"A total of 1,324 patients were enrolled. ETCO2 was better in predicting mortality than shock index (SI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Prehospital lowest ETCO2 , SBP , and SI were all predictive of Mass Transfusion."
Another data point to consider when setting up trauma triage protocols and looking for patients who will require intensive interventions early.
Campion EM, Cralley A, Sauaia A, Buchheit RC, Brown AT, Spalding MC, LaRiccia A, Moore S, Tann K, Leskovan J, Camazine M, Barnes SL, Otaibi B, Hazelton JP, Jacobson LE, Williams J, Castillo R, Stewart NJ, Elterman JB, Zier L, Goodman M, Elson N, Miner J, Hardman C, Kapoen C, Mendoza AE, Schellenberg M, Benjamin E, Wakam GK, Alam HB, Kornblith LZ, Callcut RA, Coleman LE, Shatz DV, Burruss S, Linn AC, Perea L, Morgan M, Schroeppel TJ, Stillman Z, Carrick MM, Gomez MF, Berne JD, McIntyre RC, Urban S, Nahmias J, Tay E, Cohen M, Moore EE, McVaney K, Burlew CC. Prehospital end-tidal carbon dioxide is predictive of death and massive transfusion in injured patients: An Eastern Association for Surgery of Trauma multicenter trial. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2022 Feb 1;92(2):355-361. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000003447. PMID: 34686640.
Keywords: Geriatric, trauma, mortality, risk factors (PubMed Search)
A chart review of 1300 patients over age 65 admitted to the trauma service, arrived as a trauma activation, or had an injury severity score over 12 over a 6 year period looking at 30 day mortality found:
"five factors associated with increased 30-day mortality in older trauma patients: GCS < 15, ISS > 15, age ≥ 85 years, anticoagulation, and multimorbidity."
Fall from standing was the leading cause of trauma
Again, fragility is the index we should be using, not age alone. This study is limited in its retrospective chart review nature. Prospective research in the area of geriatric trauma is needed. Until then, assess those over age 65 for risk factors associated with fragility and treat accordingly.
Yadav, K., Lampron, J., Nadj, R. et al.Predictors of mortality among older major trauma patients. Can J Emerg Med 25, 865–872 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s43678-023-00597-w
Keywords: Geriatric, older person, trauma, super-geriatric (PubMed Search)
This retrospective study looked at trauma patients over age 65 and divided them into age ranges 65-80 (geriatric) and 80 plus (super-geriatric). They then looked at mechanusm of injury, mortality, interventions,etc. What they found was ages 65-80 were more likely to be injured in motor vehicle crashes vs. falls for those over 80. Those over 80 received less interventions including hemmorhage control surgery and had much higher levels of withdrawal of care.
This study highlights that the geriatric population is not as a monolithic group over age 65, but more nuanced by various age ranges over 65. Research going forward should be adjusted to these nuanced age ranges. Out treatment approaches should be adjusted in geriatric vs. super-geriatric patients as well.
El-Qawaqzeh K, Anand T, Alizai Q, Colosimo C, Hosseinpour H, Spencer A, Ditillo M, Magnotti LJ, Stewart C, Joseph B. Trauma in the Geriatric and the Super-Geriatric: Should They Be Treated the Same? J Surg Res. 2024 Jan;293:316-326. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2023.09.015. Epub 2023 Oct 6. PMID: 37806217.
Keywords: Reverse shock index, Peds trauma, prediction (PubMed Search)
This small study suggests using reverse shock index times the Glasgow Comma Scake score may give a prognostication on pediatric trauma severity and resource utilization.
Keywords: Brain injury, ketamine ICP (PubMed Search)
This pediatric ICU study measured ICP during and after ketamine infusion. There was no increase in ICP associated with the ketamine infusion. This small study adds to the data that ketamine is safe in pediatric brain injured patients.
Keywords: ECMO, Trauma, Survivial (PubMed Search)
This systematic review and analysis found in 1822 trauma patients treated with ECMO:
-Overall 66% survival to discharge
-VV ECMO was significantly superior to VA ECMO
-Mean age was 35 years. Typical of ECMO use in trauma is younger healthier patients are chosen to receive ECMO
“ECMO is not a routine life-saving intervention following trauma, but rather a salvage therapy that effectively replaces conventional treatment for young, healthy patients when conventional methods fail. Its complexity requires a multidisciplinary healthcare team and sufficient resources for optimal implementation.”
Zhang et al. European Journal of Medical Research (2023) 28:412 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40001-023-01390-2
Keywords: transfusion, mass hemorrhage protocol, cryoprecipitate (PubMed Search)
This large UK and US study looked at the addition of high dose cryoprecipitate to mass transfusion protocols and found: “Among patients with trauma and bleeding who required activation of a major hemorrhage protocol, the addition of early and empirical high-dose cryoprecipitate to standard care did not improve all cause 28-day mortality.”
Davenport R, Curry N, Fox EE, et al. Early and Empirical High-Dose Cryoprecipitate for Hemorrhage After Traumatic Injury: The CRYOSTAT-2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. Published online October 12, 2023. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.21019
Keywords: trauma, pediatrics, resuscitation, MTP, MHP (PubMed Search)
This excellent review article discussing damage control resuscitation in traumatically injured children highlights several points including:
-”Damage-control resuscitation (DCR) consists of rapid control of bleeding, avoidance of hemodilution, acidosis, and hypothermia; early empiric balanced transfusions with red blood cells, plasma and platelets, or whole blood when available, and the use of intravenous or mechanical hemostatic adjuncts when indicated.”
-”he 30-day mortality in children with traumatic hemorrhagic shock is estimated to be 36% to 50% compared with the 25% reported mortality in similar adults. The early stages of hemorrhagic shock after injury in children can be more challenging to recognize because of their remarkable compensatory mechanisms. In children unlike adults, blood pressure alone is an insensitive indicator of hemorrhagic shock as hypotension is a late sign often not occurring until blood volume is reduced by >40%.”
-”Based on the current literature, the challenges health care providers must focus on are the early recognition of shock in the pediatric patient, moving the hemostatic resuscitation forward to the prehospital phase when feasible, improvement in times to first blood product, balanced resuscitation and efficiency of massive transfusion protocols (MTPs).”
Russell, Robert T. MD, MPH; Leeper, Christine M. MD; Spinella, Philip C. MD. Damage-control resuscitation in pediatric trauma: What you need to know. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 95(4):p 472-480, October 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/TA.0000000000004081
Keywords: REBOA, trauma, survival (PubMed Search)
This UK study randomized 90 trauma patients suspected of having major life threatening torso hemorrhage to receive standard resuscitative care vs. standard care plus resuscitative endovascular occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). Mortality was 54% in the REBOA group and 42% in the standard care group. This calls into question the routine use of REBOA in trauma resuscitations.
Jansen JO, Hudson J, Cochran C, et al. Emergency Department Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta in Trauma Patients With Exsanguinating Hemorrhage: The UK-REBOA Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. Published online October 12, 2023. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.20850
Keywords: Chest tube henothorax (PubMed Search)
This article reminds us that using a small bore chest tube to drain traumatic hemothorax is supported by small studies and the Easterm Society for the Surgery in Trauma.
Large-bore versus small-bore chest drains in traumatic haemopneumothorax: an international survey of current practice
Keywords: Head injury mannitol saline ICP (PubMed Search)
"The main findings were the following: (1) there was no evidence of an effect of HTS compared with other agents (mainly mannitol) on long-term neurological outcome in patients with raised ICP; (2) similarly, there was no evidence of a beneficial effect of HTS on all-cause mortality, uncontrolled ICP, length of hospital or ICU stay, and ICP reduction; and (3) HTS may be associated with increased risk of adverse hypernatremia.”
Bernhardt, K., McClune, W., Rowland, M.J. et al. Hypertonic Saline Versus Other Intracranial-Pressure-Lowering Agents for Patients with Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Neurocrit Care (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12028-023-01771-9
Keywords: appendicitis, delayed operating room, appendectomy (PubMed Search)
This Scandinavian study from the Lancet says yes. They randomized 1800 patients over age 18 to appendectomy either within 8 hours or 24 hours and found no difference in perforation rate or other complications.
Karoliina Jalava, Ville Sallinen, Hanna Lampela, Hanna Malmi, Ingeborg Steinholt, Knut Magne Augestad, Ari Leppäniemi, Panu Mentula,
Role of preoperative in-hospital delay on appendiceal perforation while awaiting appendicectomy (PERFECT): a Nordic, pragmatic, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,
The Lancet, 2023
Keywords: rural, trauma, laparotomy, damage control (PubMed Search)
For rural emergency departments, the decision to transfer a trauma patient to a level one center involves multiple factors including the patient’s hemodynamic stability. Harwell et al. looked at 47 trauma patients transferred from a rural hospital to a level one center. They found: “Overall mortality was significantly different between patients who had damage control laparotomy at a rural hospital (14.3%), were unstable transfer patients (75.0%), and stable transfer patients (3.3%; P < 0.001).” They concluded: “Rural damage control laparotomy may be used as a means of stabilization prior to transfer to a Level 1 center, and in appropriate patients may be life-saving.”
Preplanning with emergency medicine, surgery, radiology, anesthesia, nursing, and the receiving trauma center on how to manage these patients is critical.
Harwell PA, Reyes J, Helmer SD, Haan JM. Outcomes of rural trauma patients who undergo damage control laparotomy. Am J Surg. 2019 Sep;218(3):490-495. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.01.005. Epub 2019 Jan 10. PMID: 30685052.
Keywords: arrest, trauma, pneumothorax, CT scan (PubMed Search)
In a study looking at 80 blunt trauma patients that died within 1 hour of arrival to a trauma center who underwent a noncontrast post mortem CT scan the following injuries were identified:
-40% traumatic brain injury
-25% long bone fracture
-25% cervical spine injury
- 18.8% moderate/large pneumothorax
-5% esophageal intubation
Blunt trauma arrest patients deserve decompression of the chest (preferred method is open with finger sweep). Intubation should be verified with end tidal CO2. Verification on arrival at the trauma center is also prudent.
Levin, Jeremy H. MD; Pecoraro, Anthony MD, MBA; Ochs, Victoria; Meagher, Ashley MD; Steenburg, Scott D. MD; Hammer, Peter M. MD, FACS. Characterization of fatal blunt injuries using postmortem computed tomography. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 95(2):p 186-190, August 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/TA.0000000000004012
Keywords: liver laceration, trauma (PubMed Search)
Keywords: cardiac arrest, trauma, termination, blood, epinephrine (PubMed Search)
The authors of this paper suggest the following changes, supported by evidence, to the management of traumatic cardiac arrest:
1. Epinephrine, bicarbonate and calcium have limited if no role in traumatic cardiac arrest.
2. CPR may be harmful in traumatic cardiac arrest. Hypovolemia is the cause of death for most trauma patients and CPR cannot correct this.
3. Blood is the resuscitative fluid to be given and all other fluids do not have a role in traumatic cardiac arrest.
4. Correct hypoxia immediately.
5. Finger thoracostomy to decompress penumothoracies, not needles.
6. Utilize termination of resuscitation protocols to end resuscitations in the field.
Traumatic Cardiac Arrest (TCA): Maybe We Could Do Better?
Prehospital trauma care and outcomes have improved little in the past 50 years, the authors write. It’s time to change that.
Keywords: blood, transfusion, prehospital, pediatrics (PubMed Search)
In this small propensity matching study looking at prehospital blood transfusion vs. emergency department blood transfusion in trauma patients aged 0-17 these authors found a better 24 and in-hospital mortality for patients who received prehospital blood transfusion compared to those receiving blood on arrival to the emergency department.
“The number needed to transfuse in the prehospital setting to save 1 child's life was 5 (95% CI, 3-10).”
Morgan KM, Abou-Khalil E, Strotmeyer S, Richardson WM, Gaines BA, Leeper CM. Association of Prehospital Transfusion With Mortality in Pediatric Trauma. JAMA Pediatr. 2023 Jul 1;177(7):693-699. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2023.1291. PMID: 37213096; PMCID: PMC10203962.
Keywords: Spleen, trauma, spleen injury grades (PubMed Search)
Splenic injury treatment depends on the grade of injury. In general, grades 1 and 2 are non-operatively managed. Grades 4 and 5 tend to be managed operatively. Interventional radiology is used commonly for grade 3 and grades 1 and 2 if active contrast extravasation is seen. Below is a refresher on splenic injury grading.
Adaptation of AAST Organ Injury Scale for Spleen
Description of injury
Subcapsular, <10% surface area
Subcapsular, 10% to 50% surface area
Capsular tear, 1 cm to 3 cm parenchymal depth that does not involve a trabecular vessel
Subcapsular, >50% surface are or expanding: ruptured subcapsular or parenchymal hematoma: intraparenchymal hematoma_>5 cm or expanding
Laceration involving segmental or hilar vessels producing major devascularization (>25% of spleen)
Completely shattered spleen
1. An update on nonoperative management of the spleen in adults. BMJ Trauma Surgery and Acute Care Open. Volume 2, Issue 1. Ben L Zarzaur, Grace S Rozycki
Category: Airway Management
Keywords: major adverse event, airway, management, cardiovascular collapse (PubMed Search)
This systemic review and meta analysis looked at major adverses events (hypoxia, cardiovascular instability, or cardiac arrest) in patients intubated in emergency departments, ICU’s, or medical floors. They found nearly 1/3 of patents had an event. ICU intubation and patients with pre-existing hemodynamic compromise had the highest rate of adverse outcomes. This study gives further support to the concept of maximizing resuscitation pre-intubation and to anticipate a major event peri-intubation. Be prepared and don't be surprised when something doesn't go as planned.
Keywords: Ortho, bohler angle, fracture. (PubMed Search)
"The normal value for the Böhler angle is between 25° and 40° . Although there is wide variation between individuals, there is relatively little variation between the left and right feet of a single individual . A reduced Böhler angle can be seen in displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. The degree of reduction in the Böhler angle is an indicator of the severity of calcaneal injury, and the degree to which the Böhler angle is restored at surgery is correlated with functional outcome ."
Amini B, Worsley C, Weerakkody Y, et al. Böhler angle. Reference article, Radiopaedia.org (Accessed on 27 Jul 2023) https://doi.org/10.53347/rID-1002