EMS Research

Research in Prehospital Medicine / EMS
Faculty at the Department of Emergency Medicine have the opportunity to collaborate with leading researchers in the fields of emergency medicine, trauma, prehospital care, and public health. The National Student Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems (NSC) is housed on the University of Maryland, Baltimore's Campus. Dr. Jon Mark Hirshon, Professor of Emergency Medicine, founded the Maryland Emergency Medical Services Systems Research Interest Group (MEMSS-RIG). The group brings together researches from institutions such as Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, the Univerity of Maryland School of Medicine, and the Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Services Systems (MIEMSS). MEMSS-RIG faculty are committed to advancing the practice of prehospital medicine through ongoing research. Members have contributed to  a number of peer-reviewed articles and have worked on the development of evidence based guidelines for EMS triage, pain management, and aeromedica transport. Examples of ongoing research projects include:

1. A cost effetive analysis of fire-department based community CPR programs
2. The impact of a local freestanding ED upon surronding emergency medical services jurisdiction
3. Review of aeromedical transport and utilization within Maryland
4. Cochrane-style review of post-arrest percutaneous coronary intervention
The National Study Center for Trauma and Emergency Medical Systems (NSC) is housed on the University's campus and represents another resource for research-related contributions to EMS. 


Section of Prehospital Care and Disaster Medicine
Ongoing Research and Quality Improvement Projects
Updated: January 2016


1. Cardiac Arrest Research: Pre and Post Survey of Citizens Attending Bystander CPR classes
Lead investigators: Bouland AJ, Halliday M, Lawner B
Research Question(s): Identification of barriers linked to performing CPR
Status: data analysis 

2. Cardiac Arrest Research: Survey of the General Public about Performance of Bystander CPR
Lead investigators: Bouland AJ, Fratta, K, George N
Research Question(s): General survery related to quantifying barriers to initial performance of CPR
Status: ongoing data collection 

3. EMS Operations: Baltimore City Fire Department's Medical Duty Officer Program and its Effect Upon Urban EMS System Metrics
Lead investigators: Halliday M, Ramos D, Lawner B
Research Question(s): Does the implementation of a senior paramedic/EMS officer within the unified dispatch center result in decreased ambulance offload times
Status: manuscript in progress

4. ED/EMS Interface: The Effect of Real Time Feedback on Handoff Between EMS and ED During CPR
Lead investigators: Bussey I, Brown R, Smith L, Lawner B
Research Question(s): Does a standardized hand off process or protocolized approach to the transfer of care lead to decreased interruptions in compressions and ongoing cardiac arrest care
Status: refinement of research question, IRB process

5. Emergency Public Health: Suitability of screening criteria for EMS transfer to a sobering center
Lead investigators: Fraga DN, Lawner B
Research Question(s): Would ED patients with substance use disorders such as alcohol intoxication be eligible for direct transfer to a detox/sobering center from the field? 
Status: refinement of research question, IRB process

6. Mass Gathering Medicine: Review of the literature related to electronic dance music (EDM) festivals
Lead investigators: Fitzgibbon K 
Resarch question(s): Do currently available models accurately predict the need for medical resources at EDM events? What injury patterns distinguish EDM from other types of mass gathering events? 


Selected Peer Reviewed Faculty Publications


Knowlton AR, Weir B, Fields J, Cochran G, McWilliams J, Wissow L, Lawner BJ. Pediatric use of emergency medical services: The role of chronic illnesses and behavioral health problems. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2016;20(3):362-8
Hirshon JM, Salvagno SM, Millin MG, Floccare DJ, et al. Maryland's Helicopter Emergency Medical Services Experience from 2001 to 2011: System improvements and patients' outcomes. Ann Emerg Med. 2015 Sep 18. Epub ahead of print

Lawner BJ, Hirshon JM, Comer AC, Nable JV, et al. The impact of a freestanding ED on a regional emergency medical services system. Am J Emerg Med. 2015. Nov 18:Epub ahead of print

Nable JV, Tupe CL, Gehle BD, Brady WJ. In-flight medical emergencies during commercial travel. N Engl J Med. 2015 Sep 3;373(10):939-45

Nable JV, Lawner BJ. Chameleons: Electrocardiogram imitators of ST-segment myocardial infarction. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2015. Aug;33(3):529-37

Bouland AJ, Risko N, Lawner BJ, Seaman KG, Godar CM, Levy MJ. The price of a helping hand: Modeling the costs and outcomes of bystander CPR. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2015. Feb, e-pub ahead of print.

Nable JV, Margolis AM, Lawner BJ, et al. Comparison of prediction models for use of medical resources at urban auto racing events. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014. Sept 25:1-6

Hu P, Galvagno SM, Sen A, Dutton R, Jordan S, Floccare D, Handley C, Shackelford S, Pasley J, Mackenzie C; ONPOINT Group. Identification of dynamic prehospital changes with continuous vital sign acquisition. Air Med J. 2014. Jan-Feb;33(1):27-33

Gausche-Hill M, Brown KM, Oliver ZJ, Sasson C, Dayan PS, Eschmann NM, Weik TS, Lawner BJ, Sahni R, Falck-Ytter Y, Wright JL, Lang ES. An evidence based guideline for prehospital analgesia in trauma. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2014;18 Suppl 1:25-34

Thomas SH, Brown KM, Oliver ZJ, Spaite DW, Lawner BJ, Sahni R, Weik TS, Falck-Yttr Y, Wright JL. An evidence based guideline for the air medical transportation of prehospital trauma patients. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2014;18 Suppl 1:35-44

Brown KM, Hirshon JM, Alcorta R, Weik TS, Lawner B, Ho S, Wright JL. The implementation and evaluation of an evidence based statewide prehospital pain management protocol developed using the national evidence based prehospital evidence based guideline model for emergency medical services. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2014;18 Suppl 1:45-51

Floccare DJ, Stuhlmiller DF, Braithwaite SA, Thomas SH, et al. Appropriate and safe utilization of helicopter emergency medical services: a joint position statement with resource document. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2013 Oct-Dec;17(4):521-5

Knowlton A, Weir BW, Hughes BS, Southerland RJ, Schultz CW, Sarpatwari R, Wissow L, Links J, Fields J, McWilliams J, Gaasch W. Patient demographic and health factors associated with frequent use of emergency medical services in a midsized city. Acad Emerg Med. 2013 Nov;20(11):1101-11

Knowlton A, Weir BW, Hazzard F, Olsen Y, McWilliams J, Fields J, Gaasch W. EMS runs for suspected opioid overdose: implications for surveillance and prevention. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2013 Jul-Sep;17(3):317-29

Galvagno SM, Thomas S, Stephens C, Haut ER, Hirshon JM, Floccare D, Provonost P. Helicopter emergency medical services for adults with major trauma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Mar 28;3.

Carlson LC, Hirshon JM, Calvello EJ, Pollak AN. Operative care after the Haiti 2010 earthquate: implications for post disaster definitive care. Am J. Emerg Med. 2013 Feb;31(2):429-31

Lawner BJ, Nable JV, Mattu A. Novel patterns of ischemia and STEMI equivalents. Cardiol Clin. 2012 Nov;30(4):591-9

Galvagno SM, Floccare DJ, Scalea TM. Impact of prehospital mode of transport after severe injuries: reevaluation of results. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Sept;73(3):778

Lawner BJ, Nable JV, Brady WJ. 2010: the emergency medical services literature in review. Am J Emerg Med. 2012 Jul;30(6):966-71

Reynolds JC, Lawner BJ. Management of the post cardiac arrest syndrome. J Emerg Med. 2012 Apr;42(4):440-9

Nable JV, Lawner BJ, Stephens CT. Airway management in cardiac arrest. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2012 Feb; 30(1):77-90

Cooney DR, Millin MG, Carter A, Lawner BJ, Nable JV, Wallus HJ. Ambulance diversion and emergency department offload delay: resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statement. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2011 Oct-Dec;15(4):555-61

Maureen M, York GB, Hirshon JM. Trauma readiness training for military deployment: a comparison between a US trauma center and an Air Force Theater Hospital in Balad, Iraq. Mil Med. 2011 Jul;176(7):769-76

Witting MD, Schenkel SM, Lawner BJ, Euerle BD. Effects of vein width and depth on ultrasound guided peripheral intravenous success rates. J Emerg Med. 2010 Jul;39(1):70-5

Mattu A, Lawner B. Prehospital management of congestive heart failure. Heart Fail Clin. 2009 Jan;5(1):19-24