Keywords: cardiac arrest, CPR, bystander (PubMed Search)
Ko YC, Hsieh MJ, Schnaubelt S, Matsuyama T, Cheng A, Greif R. Disparities in layperson resuscitation education: A scoping review [published online ahead of print, 2023 Jul 25]. Am J Emerg Med. 2023;72:137-146. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2023.07.033
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: BRASH, shock, av nodal blockers (PubMed Search)
The BRASH syndrome (Bradycardia, Renal failure, AV nodal blockade, Shock, Hyperkalemia) has been increasingly described in the literature in the past 3-5 years.
The inciting factor is generally considered to be something that prompts acute kidney injury, often hypovolemia of some sort. Rather than AV nodal blocker overdose or severe hyperkalemia causing conduction problems, the combination of AV nodal blocker use (most often beta-blockers, but can be any type) and hyperkalemia (often only moderate) has a synergistic effect on cardiac conduction with ensuing bradycardia that can devolve into a cycle of worsening renal perfusion and shock.
Treatment is supportive, but most effective when the syndrome is recognized and all parts simultaneously managed. ED physicians should be familiar with its existence for targeted whole-syndrome stabilization and to avoid diagnostic delay.
Keywords: POCUS (PubMed Search)
Point of Care Ultrasound has been shown to change medical management and decrease time to diagnosis.
However, sometimes on a busy shift we may get an xray or radiological study prior to performing a POCUS exam due to time constraints.
A recent study looked at the time it takes to perform a bedside ultrasound.
The authors measured the duration of time from starting the exam through the ultrasound worklist to the timestamp on the last recorded image.
They reviewed 2144 studies and found a median time of 6 minutes to perform a study.
Of course the study is limited by the time it takes to find a machine, make sure it is functioning and other supplies such as gel.
Conclusion: You can take 6 minutes to assist in your patient's clinical care.
Patrick DP, Bradley XG, Wolek C, Anderson B, Grady J, Herbst MK. Minutes matter: Time it takes to perform point-of-care ultrasound. AEM Educ Train. 2023 Aug 18;7(4):e10901. doi: 10.1002/aet2.10901. PMID: 37600853; PMCID: PMC10436032.
Keywords: appendicitis, delayed operating room, appendectomy (PubMed Search)
This Scandinavian study from the Lancet says yes. They randomized 1800 patients over age 18 to appendectomy either within 8 hours or 24 hours and found no difference in perforation rate or other complications.
Karoliina Jalava, Ville Sallinen, Hanna Lampela, Hanna Malmi, Ingeborg Steinholt, Knut Magne Augestad, Ari Leppäniemi, Panu Mentula,
Role of preoperative in-hospital delay on appendiceal perforation while awaiting appendicectomy (PERFECT): a Nordic, pragmatic, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial,
The Lancet, 2023
Keywords: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, asthma, crepitus, esophagram (PubMed Search)
Roby K, Barkach C, Studzinski D, Novotny N, Akay B, Brahmamdam P. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum is Not Associated With Esophageal Perforation: Results From a Retrospective, Case-Control Study in a Pediatric Population [published online ahead of print, 2023 Apr 23]. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2023;99228231166997. doi:10.1177/00099228231166997
Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Keywords: DOAC, apixaban, rivaroxaban, loading dose (PubMed Search)
DOACs (dabigatran*, apixaban, rivaroxaban) each have different dosing strategies based on indication and patient characteristics. While there is no official term for the doses, the higher initial doses for apixaban (10 mg BID for 7 days) and rivaroxaban (15 mg BID for 21 days) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) are commonly referred to as “loading doses.” However, the term “loading dose” is actually a misnomer.
Loading doses are used to reach therapeutic drug levels quicker with medications such as vancomycin and phenytoin/fosphenytoin. However, this is not the purpose of the higher initial doses of apixaban and rivaroxaban. The purpose of the higher doses is to provide increased levels of anticoagulation during the acute phase of VTE when patients are hypercoagulable. For this reason, VTE and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia are the only indications where a higher dose is used initially, all other indications start with the standard dose. The difference in duration of these higher doses between apixaban (7 days) and rivaroxaban (21 days) are due to the durations used in trials by the drug company, versus any pharmacokinetic reasons.
To apply this concept:
Apixaban/Rivaroxaban: For the treatment of VTE, a higher dose is only required for the initial 7- (apixaban) or 21-day period (rivaroxaban). After this period, if there is any interruption in therapy, the standard dose can be restarted because therapeutic levels are rapidly achieved and higher doses are not needed outside of the acute phase.
One caveat to this would be if the patient developed a new VTE while therapy is interrupted, in which case another period of the higher dosing could be considered.
*Remember: Dabigatran cannot be used for initial treatment of VTE and must be started only after at least 5 days of a parenteral anticoagulant. (Dabigatran and the parenteral anticoagulant should not be overlapped).
Eliquis (apixaban) [prescribing information]. Princeton, NJ: Bristol-Myers Squibb Company; April 2021.
Pradaxa (dabigatran) [prescribing information]. Ridgefield, CT: Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc; June 2021.
Xarelto (rivaroxaban) [prescribing information]. Titusville, NJ: Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc; February 2023.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: NIPPV, CPAP, HFNC, High Flow, Respiratory Failure (PubMed Search)
When patients fail simple respiratory support therapies like nasal cannula or non-rebreather, it is often a point of debate whether to move next to High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) or Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV). This study randomized patients in acute respiratory failure (ARF) to CPAP, a form of NIPPV, vs HFNC. They looked at all comers in ARF, and primary outcome was need for intubation. Importantly, they excluded asthma/COPD exacerbation, for which BiPAP is typically considered the first line therapy due to improved CO2 clearance.
They found a significantly lower number of patients required intubation in the CPAP (28.9%) group than the HFNC (42.6%) group (p=0.006). They hypothesized that the enhanced PEEP improved oxygenation (hypoxia being a common trigger for moving to intubation), but as opposed to BiPAP, the lack of additional driving pressure limited tidal volumes and Patient Self-Inflicted Lung Injury (P-SILI), which is a known mechanism of ARDS and mortality. They use this argument to explain why trials like FLORALI, pitting HFNC vs BiPAP, tend to not find an advantage for the NIPPV arm. While this rationale makes sense, it should be noted that the study does not directly investigate if this was the reason for the difference, and for what its worth the inverse argument that using driving pressure to reduce respiratory rate, hypercarbia, and work of breathing (other very common indications for intubation) would also theoretically reduce intubations. Furthermore, it's not clear why reducing P-SILI, which tends to cause mortality on a much longer duration, would improve the short-term outcome of need for intubation.
Bottom Line: This study demonstrated a benefit to CPAP over HFNC in terms of decreasing need for intubation amongst non-asthma/non-COPD patients with acute respiratory failure, and offered a physiologic rationale but one that requires further verification and discussion. While it may be reasonable to choose CPAP instead of HFNC in marginal patients at risk of intubation (but stable enough to trial noninvasive support first), in my opinion more studies are likely needed before a wholesale change in practice. The study also does not take into consideration the enhanced comfort and compliance we tend to see with HFNC over NIPPV, which should be considered as well.
Nagata K, Yokoyama T, Tsugitomi R, Nakashima H, Kuraishi H, Ohshimo S, Mori Y, Sakuraya M, Kagami R, Tanigawa M, Tobino K, Kamo T, Kadowaki T, Koga Y, Ogata Y, Nishimura N, Kondoh Y, Taniuchi S, Shintani A, Tomii K; JaNP-Hi Study Investigators. Continuous positive airway pressure versus high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: A randomized controlled trial. Respirology. 2023 Aug 30. doi: 10.1111/resp.14588. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37648252.
Keywords: rural, trauma, laparotomy, damage control (PubMed Search)
For rural emergency departments, the decision to transfer a trauma patient to a level one center involves multiple factors including the patient’s hemodynamic stability. Harwell et al. looked at 47 trauma patients transferred from a rural hospital to a level one center. They found: “Overall mortality was significantly different between patients who had damage control laparotomy at a rural hospital (14.3%), were unstable transfer patients (75.0%), and stable transfer patients (3.3%; P < 0.001).” They concluded: “Rural damage control laparotomy may be used as a means of stabilization prior to transfer to a Level 1 center, and in appropriate patients may be life-saving.”
Preplanning with emergency medicine, surgery, radiology, anesthesia, nursing, and the receiving trauma center on how to manage these patients is critical.
Harwell PA, Reyes J, Helmer SD, Haan JM. Outcomes of rural trauma patients who undergo damage control laparotomy. Am J Surg. 2019 Sep;218(3):490-495. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.01.005. Epub 2019 Jan 10. PMID: 30685052.
Keywords: concussion, sports, head injury (PubMed Search)
Sport related concussion has been estimated to affect almost 2 million children and adolescents in the United states annually
Patients who take longer than four weeks to recover are considered to have persistent post concussive symptoms
This diagnosis is associated with poor educational, social and developmental outcomes in pediatric patients
Following sport related concussion, patients are recommended to have an individualized aerobic exercise program
Prior studies have found that sub symptom threshold aerobic exercise safely and significantly speeds recovery from sport related concussion.
Purpose: This study attempted to answer whether there is a direct relationship between adherence to a personalized exercise prescription and recovery or if initial symptom burden effects adherence to the prescription.
Design: Male and female adolescents aged 13 to 18 years old presenting within 10 days of injury and diagnosed with sport related concussion.
Almost all participants (94%) sustained concussion during interscholastic games or practices.
As it is known that physician encouragement can influence patient adherence to medical interventions, treating physicians in the study were blinded to study arm assignment.
Patients were given aerobic exercise prescriptions based on their heart rate threshold at the point of exercise intolerance on a graded treadmill test
Adherence to prescription was determined objectively with heart rate monitors. No participants exercised above their prescribed heart rate intensity.
Patients who completed at least 2/3 of their aerobic exercise prescription were considered to be adherent
Results: 61% of adolescents met the adherence criterion
Adherent patients were more symptomatic and were more exercise intolerant (worse initial exercise tolerance) at their initial visit.
These patients were also more adherent than those with fewer symptoms and with better exercise tolerance. This likely indicates a stronger motivation for those more symptomatic patients to engage in a potentially effective intervention.
Adherent patients recovered faster than those who were not adherent (median recovery time 12 days versus 21.5 days (P = 0.016)
Adherence during week one was inversely related to recovery time and to initial exercise tolerance but not to initial symptom severity
Conclusion: Adherence to individualized sub symptom threshold aerobic exercise within the first week of sport related concussion is associated with faster recovery. The initial degree of exercise intolerance (but not initial symptom severity) affects adherence to aerobic exercise prescription in an adolescent population with sport related concussion
Chizuk HM, et al. Adolescents with Sport-Related Concussion Who Adhere to Aerobic Exercise Prescriptions Recover Faster. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2022 Sep 1;54(9):1410-1416.
Keywords: Pediatrics, procedures, sedation (PubMed Search)
The literature is not completely new regarding the use of intranasal dexmedetomidine for pediatric sedation, with several articles confirming noninferiority to benzodiazepines. It is a potent a2- adrenergic receptor agonist, which allows for sedation without analgesic properties. It can be considered for patients who are undergoing PAINLESS procedures. A recent article gave further clarification for dosing considerations when selecting this option. This study assessed varying weight-based doses and found the best effect with doses of 3 to 4 mcg/kg
Importantly, there is limited data that suggests this may result in longer discharge, duration of procedure and total time in the department compared to other sedation methods. Additionally, this option is not always readily available and approved for pediatric patients in every hospital.
Overall, Dexmedetomidine may be an excellent option for painless procedures, such as CT imaging or even MRI based on the literature, when available.
Poonai N, Sabhaney V, Ali S, Stevens H, Bhatt M, Trottier ED, Brahmbhatt S, Coriolano K, Chapman A, Evans N, Mace C, Creene C, Meulendyks S, Heath A. Optimal Dose of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine for Laceration Repair in Children: A Phase II Dose-Ranging Study. Ann Emerg Med. 2023 Aug;82(2):179-190. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.01.023. Epub 2023 Mar 3. PMID: 36870890.
Tsze DS, Rogers AP, Baier NM, Paquin JR, Majcina R, Phelps JR, Hollenbeck A, Sulton CD, Cravero JP. Clinical Outcomes Associated With Intranasal Dexmedetomidine Sedation in Children. Hosp Pediatr. 2023 Mar 1;13(3):223-243. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2022-007007. PMID: 36810939.
Lewis J, Bailey CR. Intranasal dexmedetomidine for sedation in children; a review. J Perioper Pract. 2020 Jun;30(6):170-175. doi: 10.1177/1750458919854885. Epub 2019 Jun 27. PMID: 31246159.
It's back to school season which means back to school injuries!
Scalp lacerations often require suturing or staple closure, but what if you can close the wound without any sharps that scare the kiddos? Consider using the Hair Apposition Technique (HAT)!
What is HAT?
- A very quick and easy technique for superficial scalp laceration closure made by twisting hair on each side of the laceration and sealing the twist with a small dot of glue for primary closure.
When do I consider HAT?
- For linear, superficial lacerations that are <10cm in length
- Laceration has achieved adequate hemostasis
- Patient has hair on both sides of the laceration
What are contraindications to HAT?
- Hair strands are less than 3cm in length
- Laceration is longer than 10cm in length
- Active bleeding from laceration despite hair apposition
- Significant wound tension
- Laceration is highly contaminated
How do I perform HAT?
- Debride wound as you normally wound for any laceration
- Take approximately 5 strands of hair on one side of the laceration and twist them together to make one twisted bundle
- Take approximately 5 strands of hair directly on the other side of the laceration and twist them together to make another twisted bundle
- Then take each bundle and intertwine the two bundles until the wound edges appose.
- Place a drop of glue on the twist
- Repeat along the length of the laceration until laceration is closed
Benefits of HAT:
- Based on a RCT from Singapore that compared suturing to HAT for superficial scalp lacerations that were <10cm, patient's were more satisfied, had less scaring, lower pain scores, shorter procedure tiems, adn less wound breakdown in the HAT group compared to the sutured group.
- A follow up study by the same group also assessed cost-effectievness of HAT compared to suturing (by taking into account staff time, need for staple/suture removal, treatment of complications, materials, etc) and found that HAT saved $28.50 USD when compared to suturing.
Category: Critical Care
Pearls for the Patient in Cardiogenic Shock
Jentzer JC, et al. Advances in the management of cardiogenic shock. Crit Care Med. 2023; 51:1222-1233.
Keywords: arrest, trauma, pneumothorax, CT scan (PubMed Search)
In a study looking at 80 blunt trauma patients that died within 1 hour of arrival to a trauma center who underwent a noncontrast post mortem CT scan the following injuries were identified:
-40% traumatic brain injury
-25% long bone fracture
-25% cervical spine injury
- 18.8% moderate/large pneumothorax
-5% esophageal intubation
Blunt trauma arrest patients deserve decompression of the chest (preferred method is open with finger sweep). Intubation should be verified with end tidal CO2. Verification on arrival at the trauma center is also prudent.
Levin, Jeremy H. MD; Pecoraro, Anthony MD, MBA; Ochs, Victoria; Meagher, Ashley MD; Steenburg, Scott D. MD; Hammer, Peter M. MD, FACS. Characterization of fatal blunt injuries using postmortem computed tomography. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 95(2):p 186-190, August 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/TA.0000000000004012
Keywords: liver laceration, trauma (PubMed Search)
Keywords: cardiac arrest, chemical restraint, ketamine, agitation, delirium (PubMed Search)
Patient restraint is a high risk, high liability encounter for all levels of emergency medical practitioners. Often, acutely agitated patients benefit from de-escalation. This can be difficult to achieve in a resource limited setting. McDowell et al (2023) performed a comprehensive review of patient restraint encounters. Their work describes risk factors linked to adverse outcomes. Specifically, highly agitated patients who are physically and chemically restrained can experience clinical deterioration. The review also highlighted risks to EMS clinicians as well such as: needle stick, physical inury, and downstream litigation.
Patient restraint represents a high risk encounter.
McDowall J, Makkink AW, Jarman K. Physical restraint within the prehospital Emergency Medical Care Environment: A scoping review. Afr J Emerg Med. 2023 Sep;13(3):157-165. doi: 10.1016/j.afjem.2023.03.006. Epub 2023 Jun 9. PMID: 37334175; PMCID: PMC10276259.
Keywords: cardiac arrest, trauma, termination, blood, epinephrine (PubMed Search)
The authors of this paper suggest the following changes, supported by evidence, to the management of traumatic cardiac arrest:
1. Epinephrine, bicarbonate and calcium have limited if no role in traumatic cardiac arrest.
2. CPR may be harmful in traumatic cardiac arrest. Hypovolemia is the cause of death for most trauma patients and CPR cannot correct this.
3. Blood is the resuscitative fluid to be given and all other fluids do not have a role in traumatic cardiac arrest.
4. Correct hypoxia immediately.
5. Finger thoracostomy to decompress penumothoracies, not needles.
6. Utilize termination of resuscitation protocols to end resuscitations in the field.
Traumatic Cardiac Arrest (TCA): Maybe We Could Do Better?
Prehospital trauma care and outcomes have improved little in the past 50 years, the authors write. It’s time to change that.
Keywords: elbow, UCL, throwing injury (PubMed Search)
29 yo baseball pitcher presents with right medial elbow pain. He felt a painful “pop” and could not continue to throw (due to loss of speed and control). Also notes mild paresthesias in 4th and 5th digits.
Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury
Sprain of the UCL of the elbow can occur either as an acute injury or as the result of chronic excessive valgus stress due to throwing. This injury is seen in javelin throwers and baseball pitchers. Most recently, Angels superstar Shohei Ohtani suffered a torn UCL.
While traditionally this injury pattern was thought to occur in older, high-level pitchers (high velocity throwing), we are increasingly seeing this in younger athletes.
The repeated valgus stress of pitching leads to micro tearing and inflammation of the ligament. Over time, this leads to scarring and calcification and then ligament rupture.
This injury is more likely to happen in pitchers who “open up too soon” in their throwing motion. Fatigue related changes seen first in leg and core mechanics cause pitchers to open up earlier, increasing stress to the shoulder and the UCL of the elbow. Other risk factors include high velocity pitching, insufficient recovery time, and chronic overuse. The importance of proper pitching mechanics is very important as players whose pitching motion produces greater elbow valgus loads and shoulder external rotation torque are at increased risk for UCL tears.
Approximately one half of the torque generated during a fastball pitch is transmitted to the UCL. Well developed muscles about the elbow can dissipate enough energy that acute tearing is rare.
The athlete with a UCL sprain will complain of medial elbow pain that increases during the acceleration phase of throwing.
On examination, there is localized tenderness directly over the UCL:
Stress testing of the UCL causes both pain and demonstrates laxity.
Moving Valgus Stress Test:
Place elbow in the “90/90” position. Apply a valgus stress while ranging elbow through full arc of flexion and extension. A positive test will reproduce apprehension, pain or instability at the UCL origin between 70 and 120 degrees.
Keywords: blood, transfusion, prehospital, pediatrics (PubMed Search)
In this small propensity matching study looking at prehospital blood transfusion vs. emergency department blood transfusion in trauma patients aged 0-17 these authors found a better 24 and in-hospital mortality for patients who received prehospital blood transfusion compared to those receiving blood on arrival to the emergency department.
“The number needed to transfuse in the prehospital setting to save 1 child's life was 5 (95% CI, 3-10).”
Morgan KM, Abou-Khalil E, Strotmeyer S, Richardson WM, Gaines BA, Leeper CM. Association of Prehospital Transfusion With Mortality in Pediatric Trauma. JAMA Pediatr. 2023 Jul 1;177(7):693-699. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2023.1291. PMID: 37213096; PMCID: PMC10203962.
Category: Critical Care
Keywords: arterial cannulation, axillary artery, femoral artery, infraclavicular (PubMed Search)
Settings: Single ICU in Poland, randomized trial
Participants: intubated patients who needed arterial catheter placement. Patients who had adequate access to one axillary and one femoral artery were eligible.
Patients were randomized 1:1 for axillary or femoral artery cannulation.
Outcome measurement: Primary outcome was cannulation success rate. Secondary outcomes were first pass success rate, number of attempts.
Ultrasound-guided cannulation of the axillary artery via the infraclavicular route is non-inferior to the cannulation of the common femoral artery. When cannulation of the radial or femoral artery is not available, we can consider axillary artery via the infraclavicular approach.
Gawda, Ryszard MD, PhD; Marszalski, Maciej MD; Piwoda, Maciej MD; Molsa, Maciej MD; Pietka, Marek MD; Filipiak, Kamil MD; Miechowicz, Izabela PhD; Czarnik, Tomasz MD, PhD1. Infraclavicular, Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Approach to the Axillary Artery for Arterial Catheter Placement: A Randomized Trial. Critical Care Medicine ():10.1097/CCM.0000000000006015, August 07, 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000006015
Keywords: Spleen, trauma, spleen injury grades (PubMed Search)
Splenic injury treatment depends on the grade of injury. In general, grades 1 and 2 are non-operatively managed. Grades 4 and 5 tend to be managed operatively. Interventional radiology is used commonly for grade 3 and grades 1 and 2 if active contrast extravasation is seen. Below is a refresher on splenic injury grading.
Adaptation of AAST Organ Injury Scale for Spleen
Description of injury
Subcapsular, <10% surface area
Subcapsular, 10% to 50% surface area
Capsular tear, 1 cm to 3 cm parenchymal depth that does not involve a trabecular vessel
Subcapsular, >50% surface are or expanding: ruptured subcapsular or parenchymal hematoma: intraparenchymal hematoma_>5 cm or expanding
Laceration involving segmental or hilar vessels producing major devascularization (>25% of spleen)
Completely shattered spleen
1. An update on nonoperative management of the spleen in adults. BMJ Trauma Surgery and Acute Care Open. Volume 2, Issue 1. Ben L Zarzaur, Grace S Rozycki