Keywords: foreign body, ear, insect, button battery (PubMed Search)
Many types of foreign bodies may be found in a child's ear. Some examples include: beads, cotton swabs, food, insects, and button batteries.
Patients can be asymptomatic. However, they often have otalgia, pruritus, fullness, tinnitus, hearing loss, otorrhea, or bleeding. Obtain a history of the type of foreign body, when/how it entered the ear, and if there was a prior attempt at removal. Also ask if there are foreign bodies elsewhere, such as in the nose. Perform Rinne and Weber tests before and after removing the foreign body if the child is old enough to participate.
Delayed presentation can result in edema and otitis externa. When the foreign body is sharp, there may be damage to the tympanic membrane (TM) and ossicles.
Consult ENT when there is suspicion of damage to TM, when hearing loss is present, or when removal is especially challenging. Spherical foreign bodies are more difficult to remove.
Remove foreign body if it can be visualized. Wax curettes, right-angled hooks, alligator forceps, and Frazier tip suctions can facilitate removal. Avoid additional trauma due to concern for edema, bleeding, TM perforation, or distal displacement of the object. Anxiety in the child will lead to increased difficulty with removal.
A button battery in the ear is an emergency that can result in severe damage, including TM perforation, scarring or stenosis of the ear canal, and deeper injury. Seeds such as beans or peas and other absorptive material in the ear can expand, so do not irrigate when such foreign bodies are present. Living insects should be killed with alcohol, lidocaine, or mineral oil prior to performing foreign body removal.
After removal, reassess ear canal and TM. Some foreign bodies require removal in the operating room. If the object has been successfully removed, evaluate for otitis externa or iatrogenic injury to the ear canal, and prescribe antibiotic otic drops when needed. When TM has perforated, refer for formal audiogram. ENT follow up is recommended for all patients.
Butts, SC, Goldstein NA, Rosenfeld RM et al. Atlas of Pediatric Emergency Medicine: 3rd Edition. Binita Shah. Brooklyn, NY: McGraw Hill, 2019. 437-438. Print.
Benary, Lozano, Higley, Lowe. Pediatrics. Ondansteron Prescription is Associated with Reduced Return Visits to the Pediatric Emergency Department for Children with Gastroenteritis. 76,5. November 2020.
Rivera-Dominguez, Ward. StatPearls. Pediatric Gastroenteritis. April 2021.
Managing Acute Gastroenteritis Among Children. CDC. MMWR.
Keywords: peds ortho, calcaneus, stress injury (PubMed Search)
Smith JM, Varacallo M. Sever Disease. [Updated 2021 Jul 18]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441928/
Keywords: orthopedics, upper extremity fractures, playgrounds (PubMed Search)
Curnow H and Millar R. Too far to fall: Exploring the relationship between playground equipment and paediatric upper limb fractures. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health. 2021.
Keywords: T1DM, DKA, pediatrics (PubMed Search)
Incidence of T1DM is 1.93/1000 of youth <20 years old in the United States, with a bimodal distribution of onset. Onset peaks from ages 4-6 and again at puberty.
Prior to the development of DKA, diabetes often has an insidious onset with symptoms of polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria with weight loss in children. It can also be asymptomatic.
When DKA is present, symptoms will include neurological manifestations (confusion, lethargy), GI symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting), or respiratory abnormalities (Kussmaul respirations.) Polyuria and polydipsia are frequently present as well.
Diagnosis of DKA includes: serum glucose of >200 mg/dL, serum or urine ketones, and a pH <7.30 or bicarbonate <15 mEq/L.
DKA is classified as mild, moderate or severe:
Mild: pH 7.21-7.30, HCO3 11-15 mEq/L
Moderate: pH 7.11-7.20, HCO3 6-10 mEq/L
Severe: pH < 7.10, HCO3 <5 mEq/L
Initial treatment is 10 ml/kg of isotonic fluid bolus to a max of 500 ml, then reassess. Continue to replace fluids gradually to cover maintenance fluids as well as to treat dehydration. Do NOT bolus insulin. Rather, start a drip at 0.05-0.1 units/kg/hr. Continue insulin until acidosis has completely resolved. Once the serum glucose falls below 250 mg/dL, start dextrose to prevent hypoglycemia until the gap closes.
Cerebral edema can develop 4-12 hours after treatment has been initiated. Observe for change in mental status, posturing, decreased response to pain, cranial nerve palsy, bradycardia, or abnormal respiratory pattern. This is a clinical diagnosis! Although a head CT can be obtained, it is often negative and treatment with mannitol or hypertonic saline should be started as soon as there are clinical changes.
DKA has resolved when pH > 7.3 and HCO3 is >15.
Naga, O. (2020). Pediatric Board Sudy Guide: A Last Minute Review, 2nd Edition. Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
Dean, T. and Bell L. (2019). Nelson Pediatrics Board Review Certification and Recertification. Elsevier.
Keywords: seizure, status epilepticus, midazolam (PubMed Search)
This was a retrospective, noninferiority analysis looking at patients 14 years old and younger treated for nontraumatic seizures by EMS with a midazolam dose of 0.1 mg/kg (regardless of route). There were just over 2000 patients with a median age of 6 years included in the study. Midazolam redosing occurred in 25% of patients who received intranasal midazolam versus only 14% who received midazolam via intramuscular, intravenous, or intraosseous routes.
Bottom line: In the prehospital setting, intranasal midazolam at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg was associated with an increased need to redose compared to other routes. This dose may be subtherapeutic for intranasal administration.
Keywords: febrile infant, neonatal fever (PubMed Search)
What they are: Clinical practice guidelines put together by an AAP subcommittee over a span of several years based on changing bacteriology and incidence of illness, advances in testing, and evidence that has accumulated
Includes: Healthy infants 8 to 60 days of life with an episode of temperature greater than or equal to 38.0 C who at now at home after being born at home or after discharge from the newborn nursery, born between 37 and 42 weeks, without focal infection on exam (cellulitis, vesicles, etc)
For the well appearing 8-21 day old:
For well appearing 22- 28 day olds:
For well appearing 29-60 day olds:
Pantell, R., Roberts, K., et al. Evaluation and Managment of Well-Appearing Febrile Infants 8 to 60 Days Old. Pediatrics. Aug 2021, 148(2) e2021052228
Keywords: roller coasters, summer, death (PubMed Search)
Keywords: sickle cell, HgSS, fever, sepsis (PubMed Search)
Miller, Scott and Kusum Viswanathan. "Sickle Cell Anemia with Fever." Atlas of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 3rd Edition, edited by Binita Shah, McGraw-Hill, 2019, 510-511.
Keywords: hyperthermia, pediatrics, car (PubMed Search)
Keywords: RSV, bronchiolitis (PubMed Search)
CDC. Increased Interseasonal Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Activity in Parts of the Southern United States. Health Alert Network. Published online June 10, 2021.
Ralston, S., Lieberthal, A., et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: The Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Bronchiolitis. Pediatrics. Nov 2014. 134(5) e1474-1502.
Munden M, Williams J, Zhang W, Crowe J, Munden R, Cisek L. Intermittent Testicular Torsion in the Pediatric Patient: Sonographic Indicators of a Difficult Diagnosis. Am J Roent. 2013;201:912-918.
Pogoreli? Z, Mrkli? I, Juri? I. Do not forget to include testicular torsion in differential diagnosis of lower acute abdominal pain in young males. J Pediatr Urol. 2013;9:1161–1165.
Janetschek G, Schreckenberg F, Mikuz G, Merberger M. Experimental testicular torsion: effect on endocrine and exocrine function and contralateral testicular histology. Urol Res 1998; 16:43–47.
Kamaledeen S, Surana R. Intermittent testicular pain: fix the testes. BJU Int 2003; 91:406–408.
Sung EK, Setty BN, Castro-Aragon I. Sonography of the pediatric scrotum: emphasis on the Ts—torsion, trauma, and tumors. AJR 2012; 198:996–1003.
Keywords: Bradycardia, intubation, RSI, atropine (PubMed Search)
Kovacich et al. Incidence of bradycardia and the use of atropine in pediatric rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department. Pediatric emergency care. Published online 2021.
Keywords: finger injuries, nail bed (PubMed Search)
Petruzella F, Easter JS. Pediatric emergency medicine literature 2020. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2021;43:123-133
Keywords: pediatric, cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, sodium bicarbonate (PubMed Search)
During cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis develops because of hypoxia-induced anaerobic metabolism and decreased acid excretion caused by inadequate renal perfusion. Sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration was considered as a buffer therapy to correct metabolic acidosis. However, SB has several side effects such as hypernatremia, metabolic alkalosis, hypocalcemia, hypercapnia, impairment of tissue oxygenation, intracellular acidosis, hyperosmolarity, and increased lactate production. The 2010 Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) guideline stated that routine administration of SB was not recommended for cardiac arrest except in special resuscitation situations, such as hyperkalemia or certain toxidromes. An evidence update was conducted in the 2020 Pediatric Life Support (PLS) guideline and the recommendations of 2010 remain valid. This article was a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies of pediatric in hospital cardiac arrests. The primary outcome was the rate of survival to hospital discharge after in hospital cardiac arrests. The secondary outcomes were the 24-hour survival rate and neurological outcomes.
Chih-Yao Chang, Po-Han Wu, Cheng-Ting Hsiao, Chia-Peng Chang, Yi-Chuan Chen, Kai-Hsiang Wu. Sodium bicarbonate administration during in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation. 2021. Available on line March 1. In Press.
Layden, JE, et al. Pulmonary Illness Related to E-Cigarette Use in Illinois and Wisconsin. New England Journal of Medicine. September 2019.
Centers for Disease Control. Smoking and Tobacco Use. Office of Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. April 2021.
Keywords: stroke, altered mental status, TPA (PubMed Search)
Baldovsky MD, Okada PJ. Pediatric stroke in the emergency department. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open. 2020 Oct 6;1(6):1578-1586. doi: 10.1002/emp2.12275. PMID: 33392566; PMCID: PMC7771757.
Keywords: Chest pain, ischemia, pediatrics, myocarditis (PubMed Search)
Even though acute myocardial ischemia (AMI) does not present as commonly in the pediatric patient as in the adult and the literature is limited, it is reasonable to obtain a troponin when acute cardiac ischemia is suspected based on the history and physical exam.
Recreational drugs including cocaine, amphetamine, cannabis, Spice, and K2 (cannabis derivatives) have been shown to result in myocardial injury including AMI. Coronary vasospasm secondary to drug use is well documented in the pediatric population. While cocaine use is a known risk factor for coronary vasospasm, the same condition has been reported in pediatric patients after marijuana use.
In a study of pediatric patients with blunt chest trauma, 3 of 4 patients with electrocardiographic or echocardiographic evidence of cardiac injury had elevations in troponin I above 2.0 ng/mL. Cardiac troponins are an accurate tool for screening for cardiac contusion after blunt chest trauma in pediatric patients even with limited data.
Cardiac troponins are also useful in the evaluation for myocarditis. In one study, myocarditis was the most common diagnosis (27%) in pediatric ED patients presenting with chest pain and an increased troponin. Eisenberg et al showed a 100% sensitivity and an 85% specificity for myocarditis using a troponin of 0.01 ng/mL or greater as a cut off. A normal troponin using this cutoff can be used to exclude myocarditis. Abnormal troponin in the first 72 hours of hospitalization in pediatric patients with viral myocarditis is associated with subsequent need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and IVIg.
Bottom line: Troponin can be used in pediatric patients with clinical concern for cardiac ischemia, cardiac contusion and myocarditis
Brown JL, Hirsh DA, Mahle WT. Use of troponin as a screen for chest pain in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Cardiol. 2012;33(2):337-342. doi:10.1007/s00246-011-0149-8
Drossner DM, Hirsh DA, Sturm JJ, et al. Cardiac disease in pediatric patients presenting to a pediatric ED with chest pain. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29(6):632-638. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2010.01.011
Thankavel PP, Mir A, Ramaciotti C. Elevated troponin levels in previously healthy children: value of diagnostic modalities and the importance of a drug screen. Cardiol Young. 2014;24(2):283-289. doi:10.1017/S1047951113000231
Yolda? T, Örün UA. What is the Significance of Elevated Troponin I in Children and Adolescents? A Diagnostic Approach. Pediatr Cardiol. 2019;40(8):1638-1644. doi:10.1007/s00246-019-02198-w
Adams JE, Dávila-Román VG, Bessey PQ, Blake DP, Ladenson JH, Jaffe AS. Improved detection of cardiac contusion with cardiac troponin I. Am Heart J. 1996;131(2):308-312. doi:10.1016/s0002-8703(96)
Hirsch R, Landt Y, Porter S, et al. Cardiac troponin I in pediatrics: normal values and potential use in the assessment of cardiac injury. J Pediatr. 1997;130(6):872-877. doi:10.1016/s0022-3476(97)
Eisenberg MA, Green-Hopkins I, Alexander ME, Chiang VW. Cardiac troponin T as a screening test for myocarditis in children. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(11):1173-1178. doi:10.1097/PEC.
Keywords: Congestive heart failure, trouble breathing, basic natriuretic peptide (PubMed Search)
In children with known congenital heart disease, BNP measurements are higher in those patients with heart failure compared to those without heart failure.
The utility of BNP in differentiating a cardiac from pulmonary pathology in patients with respiratory distress has been studied in pediatrics. In one study involving 49 infants with respiratory distress, the patients with a final diagnosis of heart failure had a higher mean BNP concentration than those patients with other causes. Also, there is a suggestion that the relative change in NT proBNP levels may be useful in patients with underlying pulmonary hypertension. However, currently there is not enough literature to support the routine use of BNP or NT proBNP in acute management.
Bottom line: BNP can be useful in your patient with congenital heart disease who is decompensating and may be used in a patient where there is difficulty in differentiating a primary respiratory from cardiac etiology.
Davis GK, Bamforth F, Sarpal A, et al. B-type natriuretic peptide in pediatrics. Clin Biochem. 2006 Jun;39(6):600-5.
Nir A, Lindinger A, Rauh M, et al. NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in infants and children: reference values based on combined data from four studies. Pediatr Cardiol. 2009 Jan;30(1):3-8.
Ten Kate CA, Tibboel D, Kraemer US. B-type natriuretic peptide as a parameter for pulmonary hypertension in children. A systematic review. Eur J Pediatr. 2015 Oct;174(10):1267-75.
Keywords: Infection, sepsis, lactic acid (PubMed Search)
Despite a lack of formal guidelines and evidence, lactate measurement has become a component of many pediatric emergency sepsis quality programs, with one survey showing that up to 68% of responding pediatric emergency medicine providers routinely measured it.
The Surviving Sepsis Campaign, last updated in February 2020, could not make a recommendation on the use of lactate in pediatric patients with suspected shock. The authors did state that lactate levels are often measured during the evaluation of septic shock if the lab can be obtained rapidly. However, lactate levels alone would not be an appropriate screening test.
Weiss SL, Peters MJ, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign international guidelines for the management of septic shock and sepsis-associated organ dysfunction in children. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(Suppl 1):10-67.
Scott HF, Brou L, Deakyne SJet al. Association between early lactate levels and 30-day mortality in clinically suspected sepsis in children. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Mar 1;171(3):249-255.