UMEM Educational Pearls - By Hong Kim

Category: Toxicology

Title: Clinical severity score for acute poisoned patients ICU requirement score (IRS)

Keywords: ICU requirement score, physiologic score system (PubMed Search)

Posted: 8/19/2021 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH (Updated: 8/20/2021)
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There are several clinical scoring systems (SAPS II, SAPS III, SOFA, etc.) to assess the severity and/or risk of mortality in critically ill patients. However, the routinely used physiologic scoring systems are not always suitable for poisoned patient. 

ICU requirement score (IRS) has been recently developed by investigators from Europe and a validation study (retrospective cohort) has been performed.

ICU requirement score (IRS) components (see inserted table)

  • Age
  • Systolic blood pressure
  • Heart rate
  • GCS
  • Type of intoxication
  • Comorbidities (dysrhythmia, cirrhosis, and/or respiratory insufficiency, secondary diagnosis requiring ICU admission)

Retrospective cohort 

  • Study duration: Jan 1, 2009 to Dec 31 ,2019
  • Positive IRS score: >= 6
  • Comparison to SAPS II, SAPS III, SOFA score, and PSS
  • End point: need for ICU treatment

Results

N=1503

Area under the curve for IRS ROC: 0.736 (95% CI: 0.702-0.770)

IRS <6

  • Negative predictive value: 95% (95% CI: 93-97)
  • Positive predictive value: 21% (95% CI: 18-24)
  • Sensitivity: 89% (95% CI: 85-93)
  • Specificity: 38% (95% CI:36-41)

Conclusion

  • IRS of < 6 demonstrated excellent negative predictive value for ICU admission.
  • A larger study of ICU requirement score will be needed to further assess its usefulness/limitation prior to clinical use.  

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Attachments

Untitled.pdf (252 Kb)


Category: Toxicology

Title: Pediatric cannabis exposure before and after legalization in Canada

Keywords: cannabis intoxication, trend, Canada, ICU admission, legalization (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/8/2021 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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Canada legalized recreational cannabis use in 2017. A retrospective study of children (0-18 years) who presented to pediatric ED with cannabis intoxication/exposure was performed between Jan 1, 2008 to Dec 21, 2019 to assess the trend/severity of intoxication.

Methods

  • Single center study: Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto
  • Case identification by ICD 10 code for cannabis intoxication and positive urine drug screening test
  • Pre-legalization period was defined as 1/1/2008 to 4/12/2017
  • Peri-post legalization period was defined as 4/13/2017 to 12/31/2019

 

Result

A total of 298 patients were identified

  • Pre-legalization period: 232 (77.8%)
  • Peri-post legalization period: 66 (22.1%)
  • Male: 150 (50.3%)
  • Median age: 15.9 years (IQR: 15.0-16.8) 

 

Pre-legalization

Peri-post legalization

P value

Monthly ED visit

2.1 (IRQ: 1.9-2.5)

1.7 (IQR: 1.0-3.0)

0.69

ICU admission

4.7%

13.6%

0.02

Respiratory symptoms

50.9%

65.9%

0.05

Altered mental status

14.2%

28.8%

<0.01

Age < 12 years

3.0%

12.1%

0.04

Unintentional exposure

2.8%

14.4%

0.02

Edible ingestion

7.8%

19.7%

0.02

Respiratory symptoms: tachypnea/bradypnea, cyanosis, O2 sat < 92%, bronchospasm, oxygen requirement

  • Edible ingestion was a predictor of ICU admission (OR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.2-13.7)

 

Conclusion

  • Legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada was associated with increased rates of severe intoxication in children.

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Question

 

What is the mechanism of action of N-acetylcysteine that is used to treat acetaminophen induced liver injury/toxicity?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Show Answer

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Category: Toxicology

Title: Getting "high" on household spices.

Keywords: household spices, abuse, toxicity (PubMed Search)

Posted: 4/8/2021 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH (Updated: 10/18/2021)
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There are three commonly household spices that can be abuse/misused or cause toxicity after exposure.

Pure vanilla extract contains at least 35% ethanol by volume per US Food and Drug Administration standards

  • Results in alcohol intoxication
  • Ingestion of 1.3 mL/kg in child will result in blood ethanol concentration of 100 mg/dL

 

Nutmeg contains myristicin – serotonergic agonist that possess psychomimetic properties. 

  • Typical recreational dose: 5-30 gm. (tablespoon of ground nutmeg: 7 gm).

Clinical effects:

  • GI symptoms: nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain
  • Cardiovascular: hypertension and tachycardia
  • CNS: hallucination, paranoia, seizure
  • Others: flushing, mydriasis

 

Cinnamon contains cinnamaldehyde and eugenol – local irritants.

  • Can cause contact dermatitis and ulceration from topical application
  • Inhalation of cinnamon can result in chronic and significant pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis

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Diphenhydramine is commonly involved in overdose or misused. Although it is primarily used for its anti-histamine property, it also has significant antimuscarinic effect.

A recent retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics associated with severe outcomes in diphenhydramine overdose using the multi-center Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC) Registry. 

Severe outcomes were defined as any of the following:

  • Seizure
  • Ventricular dysrhythmia
  • Intubation

 

Results

863 cases of isolated diphenhydramine ingestion were identified between Jan 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2016

  • Females: 59.1% 
  • Age < 18 years: 51.3%
  • Intentional ingestion: 86.0%
    • Self-harm: 37.5%
    • Abuse/misuse: 11.5%

Most common symptoms:

  • Delirium/toxic psychosis: 40.1% (n=346)
  • Agitation: 33.1% (n=286)
  • Severe outcome: 15.6% (n=135)

Factors associated with severe outcome

  • Intubation: self-harm ingestion and male
  • Acidemia: pH <7.2
  • QRS prolongation: QRS > 120 msec
  • Elevated anion gap: AG >20

Conclusion

  • Acidemia, QRS prolongation and elevated anion gap was associated with severe outcome in diphenhydramine toxicity

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Category: Toxicology

Title: Occupational poisoning in the US

Keywords: occupational poisoning (PubMed Search)

Posted: 3/18/2021 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH (Updated: 10/18/2021)
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There are different occupational hazards depending on the nature of one’s trade/skill/employment. Although healthcare providers may not always inquire about patient’s occupation, knowledge of a patient’s occupation may provide insightful information when caring for patients with acute poisoning.

From a recent retrospective study of National Poison Data System, the top 10 occupational toxicants were:

  1. Caustics (acids & alkalis)
  2. Chlorines/hypochlorites
  3. Carbon monoxide
  4. Hydrocarbons
  5. Cleansers/detergents
  6. Ammonia
  7. Cement
  8. Hydrofluoric acid
  9. Disinfectants
  10. Hydrogen sulfide

 

Top 10 occupational toxicants associated with fatalities were:

  1. Hydrogen sulfide
  2. Ammonia
  3. Carbon Monoxide
  4. Simple asphyxiants
  5. Chlorine/hypochlorites
  6. Alkalis
  7. Pyrethrins/pyrethroids
  8. Toluene/xylene
  9. Methane
  10. Methylene chloride 

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Category: Toxicology

Title: Is standard NAC dosing adequate for "massive" acetaminophen overdose.

Keywords: massive acetaminophen overdose, standard NAC, hepatotoxicity (PubMed Search)

Posted: 3/4/2021 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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Recently, there has been questions if standard n-acetylcysteine (NAC) dose is adequate for massive acetaminophen (APAP) overdose (ingestion of > 32 gm or APAP >300 mcg/mL).

A retrospective study from a single poison center (1/1/2010 to 12/31/2019) investigated the clinical outcome of massive APAP overdose (APAP > 300 mcg/mL at 4 hour post ingestion) treated with standard dosing of NAC.

Results

1425 cases of APAP overdose identified; 104 met the criteria of massive APAP overdose. 

  • 300-449 mcg/mL: 59.6% (n=62)
  • 450-599 mcg/mL: 14.4% (n=15)
  • >600 mcg/mL: 25.9% (n=27)

 

  • No acute liver injury/hepatotoxicity: 76% (n=79)
  • Hepatotoxicity: 24% (n=25)

Among cases that received NAC within 8 hours post ingestion (n=44)

  • Only 9% (n=4) cases developed hepatotoxicity

Among cases that received NAC > 8 hours post ingestion (n=60)

  • 35% (n=21) developed hepatotoxicity 

Odds of hepatotoxicity

  • 5.5 If NAC initiated > 8 hours post ingestion
  • 3.8 if 4 h post ingestion APAP level >600 mcg/mL  

Conclusion

  • Cohort: no acute liver injury/hepatotoxicity in 76% (n=79)
  • Standard NAC dosing initiated within 8 hours prevented hepatotoxicity in 91% (n=40/44)

Category: Toxicology

Title: Haloperidol vs. ondansetron for cannabis hyperemesis syndrome

Keywords: Haloperidol, ondansetron, cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (PubMed Search)

Posted: 2/18/2021 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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Patients with cannabis hyperemesis syndrome experience recurrent/protracted nausea/vomiting. Cases of cannabis hyperemesis syndrome may increase as cannabis use becomes more common in the United States.

A randomized control trial (triple-blind) was conducted to compare haloperidol (0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg) IV or ondansetron 8 mg IV. Primary outcome was reduction of abdominal pain and nausea from baseline (on a 10 cm visual analog scale) 2 hours after treatment.

Results

  • 33 subjected were randomized to haloperidol (n=13) and ondansetron (n=17)
  • 30 used 1.5 gm/day since 19 years of age.
  • Haloperidol was superior to ondansetron
    • 2.3 cm difference in pain and nausea
    • Less use of rescue antiemetics (31% vs. 59%)
    • Shorter time to ED departure (3.1 hours vs. 5.6 hours)

Conclusion

  • In this small trial, haloperidol (0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg IV) was superior to ondansetron (8 mg IV) in the treatment of acute cannabis associated hyperemesis  

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Category: Toxicology

Title: Is the anion gap metabolic acidosis due to alcoholic ketoacidosis or toxic alcohol ingestion?

Keywords: alcoholic ketoacidosis, toxic alcohol ingestion, anion gap metabolic acidosis (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/21/2021 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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Anion gap metabolic acidosis is often found in ED patients. It can be difficult to distinguish between toxic alcohol (TA) ingestion and alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA).  A retrospective study attempted to identify risk factors associated with AKA when TA ingestion was the alternative diagnosis.

 

New York City poison center data was reviewed from Jan 1, 2000 to April 30, 2019.

Case definition of AKA included

  1. Documented alcohol use disorder
  2. Urine or serum ketones or elevated blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration
  3. Anion gap >=14 mmol/L

Case definition of TA ingestion

  1. Detectable methanol or ethylene glycol concentration

Results

  • 699 patients were screened.
  • AKA diagnosis: 86
  • TA ingestion: 36

Univariate analysis showed following variables to be associated with AKA diagnosis

  • Ethanol level: OR 1.007 (95% CI: 1.001 – 1.013)
  • Anion gap: OR 1.063 (95% CI: 1.007-1.122)
  • Age (years): OR 1.036 (95% CI: 1.005 – 1.068)

Multivariate logistic regression showed elevated ethanol concentration was associated with increased odd of AKA diagnosis 

Conclusion

  • In this retrospective study, the odd of AKA diagnosis increased as ethanol concentration increased.
  • TA ingestion remains challenging diagonsis without the availability of obtaining real time TA concentration.

Category: Toxicology

Title: TABLE: Persistently elevated serum insulin levels

Keywords: Serum insulin level table (Attachment) (PubMed Search)

Posted: 12/31/2020 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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Please see attachment for the table of serum insulin levels

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Attachments

Untitled.pdf (39 Kb)


 

High dose insulin (HDI) therapy is commonly used in patients with severe beta-adrenergic antagonist and calcium channel antagonist overdose. Hypoglycemia and hypokalemia are commonly known complication of HDI therapy. However, kinetics of insulin in patients who received HDI therapy is unknown.

A 51 year-old man with amlodipine overdose was infused HDI (10 unit/kg/hr) for 37 hours; Serial serum insulin levels were drawn after discontinuation of HDI.

Serum insulin levels are shown in below table

Table    Description automatically generated

The serum insulin level remained significantly elevated during the first 24 hours (normal range: 2.6-24.9 microU/mL) and gradually decreased over 6 days.

Conclusion

  • The supraphysiologic insulin levels persist after discontinuation of HDI where patient may continue to experience hypoglycemia
  • These elevated insulin level may allow for more rapid titration or simply discontinue HDI when hemodynamic stability is achieved.

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Attachments

Untitled.pdf (39 Kb)


 

Antimuscarinic agents (e.g. diphenhydramine) are one of the commonly ingested substances in the US. Lorazepam is frequently used to treat delirium and agitation associated with antimuscarinic toxicity. Although physostigmine is also effective, its use is infrequent due to concerns of safety and provider’s limited experience with physostigmine.

A small blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare physostigmine vs lorazepam for the treatment of antimuscarinic toxicity -delirium/agitation. 

Inclusion criteria

  • Age: 10-17 years old
  • At least one central and 2 peripheral antimuscarinic symptoms
  • Delirium and moderate agitation

 

Intervention

  1. Lorazepam 0.05 mg/kg IV bolus (max 2 mg). this dose could be repeated at 10 min if needed. then a 4 hr normal saline infusion 
  2. Physostigmine 0.02 mg/kg IV bolus (max 2 mg; over 3-5 min). this dose could be repeated at 10 min if needed. then 0.02 mg/kg/hr (max 2 mg/h) physostigmine infusion for 4 hours.

Plus administration of lorazepam (0.05 mg/kg) IV bolus (max 2 mg) every 2 hours as needed for continued agitation or delirium (at the discretion of treatment team)

 

Delirium and agitation were assessed by Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit score (CAM-ICU) and Richmond Agitation Sedation Score

 

Result

Study duration: March 20, 2017 to June 30, 2020

  • 175 patients presented with xenobiotic ingestion. But 19 patients were enrolled
  • Physostigmine arm: 9 (47%)
  • Lorazepam arm: 10 (53%)

Antimuscarinic agent ingested

  • Diphenhydramine: 16 (84%)
  • Dicyclomine: 1 (5%)
  • Doxylamine: 1 (5%)
  • Hyoscyamine: 1 (5%)

Proportion of subject with delirium by CAM-ICU

Prior to first bolus (p >0.99)

  • Lorazepam arm: 9/10 (90%)
  • Physostigmine arm: 9/9 (100%)

After 1st bolus (p=0.01)

  • Lorazepam: 10/10 (100%)
  • Physostigmine: 4/9 (44.4%)

End of 4 hr infusion (p <0.001)

  • Lorazepam: 10 (100%
  • Physostigmine: 2 (22.2%)

No adverse events noted in both group

 

Conclusion

  • Although this is a small study, it showed that physostigmine is better than lorazepam in treating antimuscarinic delirium and agitation.
  • This study provides additional support to the finding from a prior retrospective study (Bruns MJ et al. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;35(4):374-381), which also showed the benefits of physostigmine over benzodiazepines in the management of antimuscarinic overdose associated delirium.

Show References


Category: Toxicology

Title: Ethanol exposures among infants in the US: 2009-2018

Keywords: ethanol exposure, infant, national poison data system. (PubMed Search)

Posted: 12/3/2020 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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Ethanol exposure among young children can result in significant morbidity. Infants and young children can be exposed to ethanol in many different ways: exploratory ingestion, mixed in formula-both intentionally and unintentionally, etc. 

A recently published study used national poison data system to characterize the ethanol exposure among infants < 12 months of age.

 

Results:

Between 2009-2018, 1,818 ethanol exposures among infants were reported. Oral ingestion was the most common (96.7%; n=1738). Annual number of ethanol exposure increased by 37.5% each year. 

Exposure site

  • Residence: 96.7% (n=1,758)
  • Public are/workplace or school: 1.6% (n=29)

Age

  • 0-2 months: 16.3% (n=296)
  • 3-5 months: 19.6% (n=357)
  • 6-8 months: 18.8% (n=341)
  • 9-11 months: 45.3% (n=824)

Clinically significant effects

  • Coma: 20
  • Hypoglycemia: 16
  • Respiratory depression: 15
  • Seizures: 13
  • Hypothermia: 9
  • Cardiac arrest: 4
  • Respiratory arrest: 3
  • Death: 5

563 infants (31%) were evaluated at hospital

38% (n=214) of the exposures were hospitalized

0-5 months of age 

  • higher odds of admission: non-critical (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.41-3.92) or critical care unit (OR: 2.39; 95% CI:1.5-3.79)
  • higher odds of serious outcome (OR: 4.65; 95% IC: 3.18-6.79)

 

Conclusion

Ethanol exposure among infants is increasing each year and associated with serious clinical effects.  

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What is the cause of Mad honey poisoning?

 

 

 

 

Grayanotoxin

 

Grayanotoxin is a neurotoxin that is found in honey contaminated with nectar of Rhododendron plants. It binds to activated/open neuronal sodium channels and prevents inactivation of sodium channels. Case reports of mad honey poisoning is often reported in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Commercial honey producers frequently mix honeys from multiple sources to decrease the grayanotoxin contamination.

 

Mad honey poisoning is rarely fatal and generally resolves within 24 hours. Commonly reported symptoms include dizziness, weakness, impaired consciousness/disorientation, excessive perspiration, nausea/vomiting, and paresthesia. In severe intoxication, patients can experience complete AV block, bradycardia/asystole, hypotension, and syncope. 

 

Management is primarily supportive with atropine and IV fluids.


Category: Toxicology

Title: What's in that unlabeled container?

Keywords: chemical transfer, unlabeled bottle, poison center (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/29/2020 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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Transfer of chemical from their original container to an unlabeled or different container (e.g. Gatorade bottle) is one of the common causes of unintentional poisoning. 

A retrospective study of National Poison Data System from 2007 – 2017 identified 45,512 cases of unintentional exposure/ingestion of chemicals contained in unlabeled/incorrectly labeled containers. 

 

Result

Annual reported cases increased from 3,223 in 2007 to 5,417 in 2017.

  • Median age: 30 years (interquartile range: 6 – 53)
  • Female: 52%

Most commonly involved products included

  • Cleaning products: 38.2%
    • Bleach, 18.8%
    • Peroxides, 5.7%
    • Anionic cleaners, 4.6%
  • Disinfectants: 17.3%
  • Hydrocarbons: 5.0%

These exposures led to 

  • ED visits: 9,369 (20.6%) 
  • Hospitalization: 1,856 (4.1%) 
  • Deaths: 23 (0.1%)

The majority of these exposures were non-toxic in nature (72%) but serious outcomes were noted in 4.4% of the cases, including 23 deaths.

Highest morbidity was associated with:

  • Pesticides: 10.3%
  • Prescription medications: 9.8%
  • Herbicides: 7.6%

Deaths

  • Hydrofluoric acid and herbicides accounted for 13 of 23 deaths (57%), followed by cleaning products (7/23).

 

Conclusion

  • Transfer of a chemical to unlabeled/different container is a well-recognized risk factor of poisoning.
  • Although small in number, the annual reported cases to the regional poison center are increasing.

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Category: Toxicology

Title: Co-ingestion of dihydropyridine with ARBs/ACEIs can cause more significant hypotension

Keywords: dihydropyridine, ARBs, ACEIs, co-ingestion, hypotension, toxicity (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/15/2020 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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Dihydropyridine (calcium channel blocker) overdose is one of the leading causes of death from cardiovascular drug poisoning. In contrast, angiotensin-II receptors blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEIs) causes minimal toxicity in overdose. Frequently, these medications are co-ingested with dihydropridines. 

Recently, a retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the hemodynamic impact of  dihydropyridines with ARBs/ACEIs co-ingestion.

Results

Cohort

  • 68 mixed overdoses of dihydropyridines with ARBs/ACEIs
  • 21 single agent overdose (dihydropyridines)

Mixed overdose group had:

  • Lower median nadir mean arterial pressure: 62 vs. 75 mmHg (p<0.001)
  • Higher OR for hypotension: OR 4.5, (95% CI: 1.7 – 11.9)
  • Higher OR for bradycardia: OR 8.8 (95% CI: 1.1 – 70) 
  • Lower minimum systolic blood pressure by 11.5 mmHg (95% CI: 4.9 – 18.1)

Higher proportion of the mixed overdose group received:

  • IV fluids: OR 5.7, (95% CI: 1.8-18.6)
  • Antidotes and/or vasopressor: OR 2.9 (95% CI: 1.004 – 8.6)

Conclusion

Combined overdose of dihydropyridines with ARBs/ACEIs can result in more significant hypotension.

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Category: Toxicology

Title: Black urine!

Keywords: Black urine, toxicological cause (PubMed Search)

Posted: 9/24/2020 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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Question

 

What medication ingestion can lead to black urine?

 

Black urine due to cresol intoxication | Postgraduate Medical Journal

Show Answer

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Attachments

Black_urine.docx (115 Kb)


Category: Toxicology

Title: Trend of ECMO use for poisoning in the US: 2000 to 2018

Keywords: ECMO, poisoning, trend in US (PubMed Search)

Posted: 9/10/2020 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH (Updated: 10/18/2021)
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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use is increasing in the US for acute poisoning. 

A retrospective study of the National Poison Data System from 2000 to 2018 identified 407 ECMO cases (332 adults – age > 12 years, 75 pediatric – age < 12 years). Increase in ECMO use were more notable in adult population.

 

Characteristics

  • Median age: 27 years (IQR: 15-39)
  • Male: 52.6%
  • Single substance exposure: 51.5%
  • Median number of exposures: 3 (IQR: 2-4)
  • Overall survival: 70%

Intentional exposure

  • Age > 12 years: 72.6%
  • Age < 12 years: 9.3%

Most common class of drug/poison exposure in adults

  • Sedative/hypnotic: 26%
  • Antidepressants: 25%
  • Calcium channel blockers: 19%
  • Opioids: 17%

Most common class of drug/poison exposure in children

  • Hydrocarbons: 37%
  • Antiarrhythmics: 15%
  • Antihistamine: 8%
  • Unknown: 8%

Most common states that used ECMO for poisoning

  • Pennsylvania: 45
  • Texas: 27
  • Minnesota: 24
  • Maryland: 22
  • Michigan: 20
  • New York: 20

 

Conclusion

  • Increase in EMCO use was most notable in patients with age > 12 years
  • There was no significant trend in mortality during the study period
  • ECMO cases were mostly reported from urban areas 

Category: Toxicology

Title: Baclofen clearance: hemodialysis or kidneys?

Keywords: baclofen overdose, hemodialysis, renal elimination (PubMed Search)

Posted: 8/20/2020 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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Baclofen is a presynaptic GABA-B receptor agonist in the spinal cord that is primarily used for muscle spasms/spasticity. In large overdose, baclofen can produce CNS depression, respiratory depression, bradycardia/hypotension, hypothermia, seizure and coma.

Baclofen is primarily eliminated by the kidney. In patients with end-stage kidney disease/acute kidney failure, hemodialysis (HD) has been used to enhance baclofen clearance. However, it is unclear if there is a benefit of using HD in patients with normal kidney function. 

In a recently published case report, HD was implemented in an attempt to shorten the anticipated prolonged ICU course. 

Case: 14 year old (51 kg) woman ingested 60 tablets of baclofen (20 mg tablets)

Her symptoms were:

  • Coma/CNS depression
  • Tonic-clonic seizure
  • Transient hypotension (95/47 mmHg – resolved with IV fluids)
  • Flaccid extremities
  • Initially intubated for airway protection --> no spontaneous breathing on mech. ventilation.

Baclofen level: 882 ng/mL (therapeutic range: 80 – 400 ng/mL)

Baclofen clearance from hemodialysis vs. urine

  • 24 hour urine output: 2810 mL --> total baclofen urinary elimination: 42 mg
  • 3 hours of HD #1: 3.05 mg removed. Total of 3 HD session performed.

Patient’s mental status improved on hospital day 6 and was extubated. She was discharged to psychiatry on hospital day 14.

 

 Conclusion:

  • Although this is a single case report, it appears that hemodialysis does not remove baclofen effectively.

Show References


Category: Toxicology

Title: Physical exam findings in chronic nitrous oxide abuse

Keywords: nitrous oxide abuse, neurologic findings, physical exam (PubMed Search)

Posted: 8/13/2020 by Hong Kim, MD, MPH
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What physical exam findings are associated with nitrous oxide abuse?

 

 

 

 

Nitrous oxide (NO) inhalation abuse, also called “whip-its” or “whippets”, inactivates vitamin B12 and create a vitamin B12 deficiency state. Chronic abuse of nitrous oxide can result in neurologic deficits/findings affecting the posterior/dorsal column of the spinal cord. 

Physical exam findings: 

  1. Truncal ataxia
  2. Decreased vibratory sensation and proprioception in lower extremities
  3. Impaired coordination and rapid alternative movements
  4. Lhermitte’s sign: paresthesia of the upper and lower extremities associated with flexion of the head/neck.
  5. Rossolimo’s sign: exaggerated flexion of the toes when the tips of the toes are percussed