Keywords: GU anomaly, prepubescent (PubMed Search)
A labial adhesion is defined as a thin avascular clear plane, a raphe, between the labia minora. These adhesions which can be caused by minor trauma or infection in the absence of estrogen can cause varying degrees of obstruction.
Loveless M, Myint O. Vulvovaginitis- presentation of more common problems in pediatric and adolescent gynecology. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2018 Apr;48:14-27. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2017.08.014. Epub 2017 Sep 5. PMID: 28927766.
Bacon JL, Romano ME, Quint EH. Clinical Recommendation: Labial Adhesions. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2015 Oct;28(5):405-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpag.2015.04.010. Epub 2015 Apr 24. PMID: 26162697.
Keywords: prepubertal vaginal bleeding, mass (PubMed Search)
- Urethral prolapse will appear as a protrusion of the distal urethra through the urinary meatus causing a “doughnut” sign.
- Risk factors include trauma, UTI, anatomical differences, and increased intraabdoiminal pressure from cough or constipation. There is a higher incidence in people of African descent.
- The chief complaint may include urethral mass and vaginal bleeding.
- There is a bimodal age distribution (prepuberty and postmetapause) due to a relative estrogen deficiency.
-Treatment is with estrogen cream and sitz baths for 4- 6 weeks.
McCaskill A, Inabinet C, Tomlin K et al. Prepubertal Genital Bleeding: Examination and Differential Diagnosis in Pediatric Female Patients. The Journal of Emergency Medicine 2018; 55(4): 97-100.
Keywords: Female GU, abdominal pain, missed period (PubMed Search)
Definition: Congenital anomaly where the hymen is completely obstructing the vaginal opening
Demographic: Incidence 0.05-0.1% of females
History: Most are asymptomatic and diagnosed on physical exam or incidentally when there is lack of menarche. Symptoms in adolescents can include: Abdominal pain (50%), urinary retention (20%), abnormal menstruation (14%), dysuria (10%), frequency, renal failure, UTI and back pain.
Physical exam: bulging, blueish hymenal membrane
Complications: Late detection can lead to infections, fertility problems, endometriosis, hydronephrosis, and rarely renal failure
ED treatment: If abdominal pain is significant or there is urinary obstruction, a urinary foley can be placed. GYN should be consulted.
Definitive treatment: Hymenectomy, hymenotomy, carbon dioxide laser treatments or foley insertion through the hymen (done by a specialist).
Lee K, Hong J, Jung H et al. Imperforate Hymen: A Comprehensive Systematic Review. J Clin Med 2019; 8(56): 1-14.
Keywords: MVC, neck injury, neurological injury (PubMed Search)
There is no well validated clinical decision rule similar to NEXUS or the Canadian Cervical Spine rule in children for clearing the cervical spine. Clinical clearance versus imaging first is a complicated decision. Certain risk factors may predispose children to injury and should be taken into account when deciding about clinical clearance versus imaging (XR).
High Risk Criteria for Cervical Spine Injury in Pediatrics
High risk MVC
Intrusion > 12 inches at the occupant site
Intrusion > 18 inches at any site
Partial or complete ejection
Death in the same passenger compartment
Vehicle telemetry consistent with high speed
Fall > 10 feet
Altered mental status
Focal neurological exam
Gopinathan N, Viswanathan V, Crawford A. Cervical Spine Evaluation in Pediatric Trauma: A Review and an Update of Current Concepts. Indian J Orthop 2018;52(5):489-500.
Leonard J, Browne L and Ahmed F et al. Cervical Spine Injury Risk Factors in Children with Blunt Trauma. Pediatrics 2019;144 (1):e20183221.
Kliegman R, Stanton B, St Geme J et al. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th edition Vol 1 and 2. 2016. Elsevier. P 549-550, 3299-3300, 3352.
Keywords: weight loss, not eating, small, FTT (PubMed Search)
Calleo V, Surujdeo R and Thabet A. Emergency Department Management of Patients with Failure to Thrive. EB Medicine. March 2020.
Keywords: seat belt, car seats (PubMed Search)
NHTSA recommends that car seats be replaced following a moderate or severe crash. Car seats do not automatically need to be replaced following a minor crash.
A minor crash is one in which ALL of the following apply:
-The vehicle was able to be driven away from the crash site.
-The vehicle door nearest the car seat was not damaged.
-None of the passengers in the vehicle sustained any injuries in the crash.
-If the vehicle has air bags, the air bags did not deploy during the crash
-There is no visible damage to the car seat.
NEVER use a car seat that has been involved in a moderate to severe crash. Always follow manufacturer's instructions.
Car Seat Use After a Crash. https://www.nhtsa.gov/car-
Keywords: MVC, anticipatory guidance, seatbelts. (PubMed Search)
The leading cause of death in the US for those aged 16 to 24 years is motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). Teen drivers are more likely than any other age group to be involved in an MVC that result in injury or fatality. Texting while driving, nighttime driving, inexperienced driving, and driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs may play a role in these collisions.
Can anticipatory guidance related to safe driving be done in the ED? YES!
This study implemented a toolkit that contained a copy of the driving law, a sample parent-teen driving contract and statistics on teen driving injuries. Post toolkit questionnaires showed that both teens and their guardians learned new information.
Bottom line: Engage in anticipatory guidance in the ED with teens and their parents about seatbelt use, the dangers of driving under the influence and local driving laws.
Spears et al. Teen driving education in the pediatric emergency department: effectiveness of a tool kit. Southern Medical Journal 2019; 112(11): 562-565.
Keywords: pandemic, coronavirus, pediatric (PubMed Search)
Keywords: cardiac arrest, prehospital, epinephrine (PubMed Search)
Matsuyama et al. Pre-Hospital Administration of Epinephrine in Pediatric Patients with Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests. JACC: 75 (2); 2020.
Keywords: ENT, post tonsillectomy bleeding, T and A (PubMed Search)
Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) is the second most common ambulatory surgery performed in the US. Children younger than 3 years, children with craniofacial disorders or sleep apnea are typically admitted overnight as studies have shown an increase rate of airway or respiratory complications in this population.
The most common late complications include bleeding and dehydration. Other complications include nausea, respiratory issues and pain.
Post-operatively, the overall 30-day emergency department return rate is up to 13.3%. Children ages 2 and younger were more likely to present to the ED. There is significantly higher risk of dehydration for children under 4 years. Children over the age of 6 had significantly higher bleeding risk and need for reoperation for hemorrhage control.
Lindquist NR, Feng Z and Mukerji SS. Age-related causes of emergency department visits after pediatric adenotonsillectomy at a tertiary pediatric referral center. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2019; 127: 109668.
Keywords: Urinary retention, formulas (PubMed Search)
Urinary retention in pediatrics is defined as the inability to void for more than 12 hours in the presence of a palpable bladder or a urine volume greater than expected for age.
Maximum urine volume calculation for age: (age in years + 2) x 30ml.
Causes of urinary retention include mechanical obstruction, infection, fecal impaction, neurological disorders, gynecological disorders and behavioral problems.
The distribution is bimodal occurring between 3 and 5 years and 10 to 13 years.
Nevo A, Mano R, Livne P, Sivan B and Ben-Meir. Urinary Retention in Children. Urology 2014; 84(6):1475-1479.
Keywords: Sore throat, strep throat (PubMed Search)
Streptococcal pharyngitis is common in the pediatric population however in children younger than 3 years, group A streptococcus (GAS) is a rare cause of sore throat and sequela including acute rheumatic fever are very rare. Inappropriate testing leads to increased healthcare and unnecessary exposure to antibiotics.
The national guidelines published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America do NOT recommend GAS testing in children less than the age of 3 years unless the patient meets clinical criteria and has a home contact with documented GAS.
Ahluwalia et al. Reducing streptococcal testing in patients less than 3 years old in an emergency department. Pediatrics 2019;144:4.
Keywords: sedation, autism spectrum disorder (PubMed Search)
Brown et al. Procedural sedation in children with autism spectrum disorders in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 2019 Aug;37(8):1404-1408.
Keywords: Orthopedics, compartment syndrome (PubMed Search)
- Tibial tubercle avulsion fractures are rare and pediatrics, accounting for less than 3% of all epiphyseal injuries in children ages 11-17 years.
- The typical mechanism is a sudden forceful quadriceps contraction. Patients present with sudden pain after sprinting or jumping with pain, bruising, deformity or swelling over the tibial tubercle and with a decrease ability to extend the leg.
- 10 to 20% of cases result in anterior compartment syndrome related to the rupture of the anterior tibial recurrent artery.
- Although directly measured intra-compartmental pressures can facilitate the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, interpretation of these values can be challenging with healthy children having higher average lower leg compartment pressures than adults. Treatment of subsequent compartment syndrome is often based on a high index of suspicion.
Yue et al. Bilateral tibial tubercle avulsion fractures: Pediatric orthopedic injury at high risk for compartment syndrome. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Available online May 2019.
Keywords: GSW, mass shooting, bleeding (PubMed Search)
Gunshot injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The Pediatric Trauma Society supports the use of tourniquets in severe extremity trauma. The Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) that is commonly used in adults has not been prospectively tested in children. This study used 60 children ages 6 through 16 years and applied a CAT to the upper arm and thigh while monitoring the peripheral pulse pressure by Doppler. The CAT was successful in occluding arterial blood flow in all of the upper extremities and in 93% of the lower extremities.
Bottom line: The combat application tourniquet can stop arterial bleeding in the school aged child.
Harcke et al. Adult tourniquet use for school-age emergencies. Pediatrics. 2109; 143 (6) e:20183447.
Keywords: Keppra, Dilantin, status epilepticus (PubMed Search)
-Benzodiazepines alone are effective in terminating status epilepticus in 40 to 60% of pediatric patients
-The guidelines for second line agents are based on observational studies and expert opinion
-Adverse effects of phenytoin include hepatotoxicity, pancytopenia, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, extravasation injuries, hypotension and arrhythmias
- Levetiracetam has a reduced risk of serious adverse events, greater compatibility with IV fluids and can be given in 5 minutes versus 20 minutes for phenytoin.
Bottom line: In a recent randomized control trial they found that levetiracetam was not superior to phenytoin as a second line agent for management of convulsive status epilepticus in children. There was no difference between efficacy or safety outcomes between the two groups.
Phenytoin is the second line treatment for pediatric convulsive status epilepticus after failure of first-line benzodiazepines but is only effective in approximately 60% of cases. This study was an open label, multicenter, randomized control trial conducted in Australia and New Zealand with children aged 3 months to 16 years with status epilepticus who had failed first-line benzodiazepine treatment. Patients were randomly assigned to to receive 20 mg/kg of phenytoin or 40 mg/kg of levetiracetam with the primary outcome being seizure resolution at 5 minutes
There were 233 children included in the study and seizure activity stopped in 60% of the patients in the phenytoin group and 50% of the patients in the levetiracetam which was not a statistically significant difference.
Dalziel at al. Levetiracetam versus phenytoin for second line treatment of convulsive status epilepticus in children; an open label, multicenter, randomized control trial. The Lancet. Published online April 17, 2019.
Keywords: appendicitis, hospitalization, operative management (PubMed Search)
Fugazzola et al. Early appendectomy versus conservative management and complicated acute appendicitis in children: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Feb 25 S0002-3468 (19)30125-3.
Keywords: ingestion, drug overdose, marijuana (PubMed Search)
Washington state was one of the first states to legalize recreational marijuana use. Toxicology call center data was collected on patient's 9 years old and younger with marijuana exposure between July 2010 and July 2016. There were 161 cases during that time frame and of those 130 occurred after the legalization of recreational marijuana (over a 2.5 year period). The median age range was 2 years old. There were increasing cases noted after recreational marijuana was legalized and again after marijuana shops became legal.
Thomas et al. Unintentional pediatric marijuana exposures prior to and after localization and commercial availability of recreational marijuana in Washington state. J Emerg Med 2019 Mar 4.S0736-4679 (19).
Keywords: Measles, outbreak, complications (PubMed Search)
Measles outbreaks have been reported all over the globe, with the incidence increasing due to low immunization rates. Italy experienced 5000 cases in 2017. This study was a retrospective multicenter observational study of children less than 18 years hospitalized for clinically and laboratory confirmed measles over a year and a half period from 2016-2017.
There were 263 cases of measles that required hospitalization during this time and 82% developed a complication with 7% having a severe clinical outcome defined by a permanent organ damage need for ICU care or death. A CRP value of greater than 2 mg/dL was associated with a 2-4 fold increased risk of developing complications. 23% developed pneumonia and 9.6% developed respiratory failure. Hematologic involvement was seen in 48% of patients. 1.2% of hospitalized patients died.
Bottom line: Consider CRP, lipase and CBC at a minimum in your patients with suspected measles who require hospitalization.
Lo Vecchio A, Krzysztofiak A,
Keywords: Maintenance fluids, D5, NS, hyponatremia (PubMed Search)
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalized patients, affecting approximately 15-30% of patients. Children have historically been given hypotonic maintenance IV fluids based off of theoretical calculations from the 1950s. Multiple studies have shown complications related to iatrogenic hyponatremia, including increased length of hospital stay, seizures and death.
The American Academy of pediatrics completed a systematic review and developed an updated clinical practice guideline:
Patient's age 28 days to 18 years requiring maintenance IV fluids should receive isotonic solutions with the appropriate amount KCl and dextrose.
Feld LG, Neuspiel DR, Foster BA, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Maintenance Intravenous Fluids in Children. Pediatrics. 2018;142(6):e20183083