Keywords: ICP, intracranial pressure, antihypertensive, nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, hydralazine (PubMed Search)
Several antihypertensive agents raise intracranial pressure. Normal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is constant within normal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) ranges, recalling that CPP=MAP-ICP.
If CPP is outside the range in which autoregulation occurs, e.g. due to a structural lesion, ischemic stroke, or head trauma, CBF decreases and can adversely affect the patient.
In patients with ischemic stroke or intracerebral pathology, labetalol or esmolol may be used to lower blood pressure without raising ICP. Nicardipine is recommended for use in patients with ischemic stroke or SAH but not in patients with brain injury
If the patient has NO structural abnormalities, but has hypertensive encephalopathy, nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, labetalol, esmolol, or nicardipine may be used.