Category: Critical Care
Keywords: resuscitation, ultrasound, VExUS, venous congestion (PubMed Search)
While the invasive monitoring of central venous pressure (CVP) in the critically ill septic patient has gone the way of also transfusing them to a hemoglobin of 10 mg/dL, it remains that an elevated CVP is associated with higher mortality1,2 and renal failure.2,3
Extrapolating from existing data looking at hepatic vein, portal vein, and renal vein pulsatility as measures of systemic venous hypertension and congestion,4,5,6 Beaubien-Souligny et al. developed the venous excess ultrasound (VExUS) grading system incorporating assessment of all 3, plus the IVC, using US to stage severity of venous congestion in post-cardiac surgery patients.7 They evaluated several variations, determining that the VExUS-C grading system was most predictive of subsequent renal dysfunction.
(Image from www.pocus101.com)
VExUS Grade 3 (severe) venous congestion:
A great how-to can be found here:
1. Li DK, Wang XT, Liu DW. Association between elevated central venous pressure and outcomes in critically ill patients. Ann Intensive Care. 2017;7(1):83. doi:10.1186/s13613-017-0306-1
2. Chen KP, Cavender S, Lee J, et al. Peripheral Edema, Central Venous Pressure, and Risk of AKI in Critical Illness. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;11(4):602-608.
3. Chen CY, Zhou Y, Wang P, Qi EY, Gu WJ. Elevated central venous pressure is associated with increased mortality and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):80. doi:10.1186/s13054-020-2770-5
4. Iida N, Seo Y, Sai S, et al. Clinical Implications of Intrarenal Hemodynamic Evaluation by Doppler Ultrasonography in Heart Failure. JACC Heart Fail. 2016;4(8):674-682. doi:10.1016/j.jchf.2016.03.016
5. Ikeda Y, Ishii S, Yazaki M, et al. Portal congestion and intestinal edema in hospitalized patients with heart failure. Heart Vessels. 2018;33(7):740-751. doi:10.1007/s00380-018-1117-5.
6. Beaubien-Souligny W, Benkreira A, Robillard P, et al. Alterations in Portal Vein Flow and Intrarenal Venous Flow Are Associated With Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7(19):e009961. doi:10.1161/JAHA.118.009961
7. Beaubien-Souligny W, Rola P, Haycock K, et al. Quantifying systemic congestion with Point-Of-Care ultrasound: development of the venous excess ultrasound grading system. Ultrasound J. 2020;12(1):16. doi:10.1186/s13089-020-00163-w