Electronic cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine, flavorings, (e.g. fruit, mint, and chocolate), and other chemicals via an inhaled aerosol. E-cigarettes are currently not regulated by the FDA. In many states, there are no restrictions on the sale of e-cigarettes to minors.
Electronic cigarette exposures involving young children are rapidly increasing. Such exposures tend to involve patients aged < 5 years and occur by ingestion of the nicotine-containing liquid. There is a potential for acute nicotine toxicity (nausea, vomiting, pallor, diaphoresis, tachycardia, hypertenstion initially). Respiratory muscle weakness with respiratory arrest is the most likely cause of death.
To date, the overwhelming majority of pediatric ingestions have not resulted in serious medical outcomes. The most commonly reported adverse events were nausea and vomiting.
However, in May of 2014, the first pediatric case of toxicity from ingestion of e-cigarette nicotine liquid was reported. A 10-month old ingested an unknown amount of e-liquid and developed vomiting, tachycardia, grunting respirations, and ataxia. The symptoms resolved by 6 hours after ingestion without specific treatment.
(1) The figure above shows the number of calls to poison centers for cigarette or e-cigarette exposures, by month, in the United States during September 2010 February 2014. E-cigarette exposure calls per month increased from one in September 2010 to 215 in February 2014.
(1) Chatham-Stephens K, Law R, Taylor E, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014;63:292-293.
(2) LoVecchio F, Zoph O. Incidence of electronic cigarette exposure in children skyrockets in Arizona. Am J Emerg Med, epub, 2/25/15.
(3) Bassett RA, Osterhoudt K, Brabazon T. Nicotine Poisoning in an Infant. N Engl J Med 2014;370:2249-2250.