UMEM Educational Pearls


This week's visual pearl reviews the structures of the heart when being viewed in a parasternal long-axis view. What do the labels correspond to in the clip below (note: "E" and "F" are valves) and do you see any obvious abnormalities?  



The parasternal long-axis is obtained by scanning to the left (patient's left) of the sternum through the 2nd-5th intercostal space. Click here for a tutorial on the technique. 

  • A - Left Ventricle
  • B - Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (RVOT)
  • C - Left atrium
  • D - Ascending Aorta
  • E - Mitral Valve
  • F - Aortic Valve
  • G - Descending Aorta

Answer to Bonus Question: Dilation of the RVOT

  • Quick tip for evaluating the RVOT; use the left atrium as a size reference (assuming normal atrial size) for the RVOT
  • Normally, the RVOT and left atrium should be approximately equal in size



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