UMEM Educational Pearls - Orthopedics

Category: Orthopedics

Title: New blood test for concussion

Keywords: Mild traumatic brain injury, concussion (PubMed Search)

Posted: 2/25/2018 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
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The search for an objective reliable test for mild traumatic brain injury found an early promising result last week.

               May be arriving in your hospital in the near future.

               A handheld sideline version is sure to follow

The FDA approved the first blood test for concussion/mild TBI

               Called the Banyan BTI (Brain Trauma Indicator)

This test measures 2 neural protein biomarkers released into the blood following mild TBI

The FDA approved this test within 6 months after reviewing data on just under 2,000 blood samples.

               They concluded the Banyan BTI can predict the absence of cranial CT lesions with an accuracy greater than 99% and may reduce imaging in up to a 1/3rd

Be optimistic but consider the small sample size and remember that this test looks for biomarkers and may miss subtle cases where proteins didn’t leak. This test is NOT ready to be used for return to play decisions. It takes 3 to 4 hours to result and costs about $150. Other biomarkers are being investigated and may prove to be better

 

https://www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/ucm596531.htm

 



Category: Orthopedics

Title: Femoral neck stress fracture

Keywords: Hip pain, athletes (PubMed Search)

Posted: 2/10/2018 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
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Femoral neck stress fractures

Adults>kids

Represents 5% of all stress fractures

Usually due to repetitive abductor muscle contraction

As with all stress fractures can occur in 2 types

1)      Insufficiency type (normal physiologic stress on abnormal bone)

2)      Fatigue type (abnormal/excessive physiologic stress on normal bone)

2 locations on interest:

1)      Compression side (inferior femoral neck)

2)      Tension side (superior femoral neck)

History: Insidious onset of groin or lateral hip pain associated with weight bearing

Exam: Antalgic gait, pain with hip log roll and with FABER (hip flexion, Abduction and external rotation test)

Treatment:

Compression side: reduced weight bearing and activity modification

Tension side:  Non weight bearing (due to high risk of progression to displacement with limited weight bearing) AND surgical consultation for elective pinning to prevent displacement. If displaced, will require ORIF

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Dental Avulsion in the field/sporting event

Keywords: Dental avulsion, tooth, trauma (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/27/2018 by Brian Corwell, MD
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Dental Avulsion in the field/sporting event

 

-  Only replace avulsed secondary teeth

-  Handle the tooth by the crown only

-  Rinse tooth with cold running water gently (the root should not be wiped)

-  Immediate attempt to reimplant permanent tooth into socket by 1st capable person:

*  Time is tooth: Each minute tooth is out of socket reduces tooth viability by 1%

*  Best chance of success if reimplant done within 5–15 min*?  Poor tooth viability if avulsed for >1 hr

-  If unsuccessful, place tooth in a transport solution (from most to least desirable):

Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS)

*  Balanced pH culture media available commercially in the Save-A-Tooth kit

*  Effective hours after avulsion

Cold milk:

*  Best alternative storage medium

*  Place tooth in a container of milk that is then packed in ice (prevents dilution)

Saliva:

*  Store in a container of parent or child's saliva

-  Never use tap water or dry transport



Category: Orthopedics

Title: Concussion Where are we now?

Keywords: Head injury, concussion, sideline (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/13/2018 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
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Concussion – Where are we now?

The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th edition (SCAT 5) was released in 2017

It is a standardized tool to assist health care professionals in the evaluation of sport associated concussions

It should be used for those 13 years and older (there is a child version for younger athletes)

Print and bring to the sideline for your next coverage event!

http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/early/2017/04/26/bjsports-2017-097506SCAT5.full.pdf

Some points to consider:

It should take at least 10 minutes to complete. Any less and you may not be performing the test correctly

The SCAT5 is the standard tool used in concussion assessment in the NCAA and NFL and other professional sports

Some symptoms of concussion appear over time. For example, an athlete may have zero or minimal symptoms immediately after yet be considerably symptomatic in 10 to 15 minutes.

               -Follow up screening evaluations are essential even in those with a negative initial sideline screening test

The SCAT5 should be used immediately after injury

               -Utility decreases post injury after days 3-5

               -The included symptom checklist has utility in tracking recovery

               -Attempt to perform in an environment free of distractions (crowd noise, bad weather)

The clinical utility of the SCAT5 can be enhanced by adding assessment of other factors such as reaction time, balance assessment, video-observable signs (if available) and oculomotor screening.



Category: Orthopedics

Title: Iselin disease

Keywords: 5th metatarsal, fracture, overuse (PubMed Search)

Posted: 12/9/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD
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CC: 12yo boy presents with pain to base of 5th metatarsal

 

Osteochondrosis overuse syndromes associated with development of secondary ossification or apophyseal centers

Iselin disease – Osteochondrosis of 5th MT base

Lateral 5th foot pain with weight bearing and activity in early adolescence

Child may limp or walk on inner part of foot

               Adolescents:  Girls >10, Boys >12

               Commonly seen in soccer, basketball, gymnastics and dance

Exam: Tenderness to palpation at proximal 5th MT at peroneal brevis insertion

Area may show edema and redness

Pain with foot inversion and resisted eversion and dorsiflexion

XR: May be normal or show enlargement or fragmentation of epiphysis

Obliquely oriented small bony fleck at 5th MT base. Parallel to long axis of 5th MT. Best seen on oblique view. Unlike fractures which tend to be horizontally oriented.

Treatment: Immobilize for comfort if severe (walking boot) or simple activity modification if mild. Ice and calf muscle stretching.

http://https://images.radiopaedia.org/images/2343487/d3478d2024c845ba0f2fffffd7d51c_big_gallery.jpg



Category: Orthopedics

Title: Tibial shaft stress fractures

Keywords: Stress fracture, runner, non union (PubMed Search)

Posted: 11/25/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Tibial shaft stress fractures

An overuse injury where the tibia is subjected to repetitive stress resulting in progressive microfractures

Commonly seen in runners and military recruits

Location of injury is very important for prognosis and treatment

1)      Medial tibia (compression side) – Most common stress fracture site in athletes (runners)

2)      Anterior tibia (tension side) – Seen in repetitive jumping  athletes

History: Change in routine (volume or surface), Insidious onset of pain, worse with activity better with rest

Exam: Focal tenderness to palpation (versus larger diffuse area with shin splints)

Radiology: Plain film often normal in first 2 to 3 weeks

Lateral X-ray may show the “dreaded black line” on the anterior tibia

MRI has replaced bone scan as most sensitive for early diagnosis. Fracture line surrounded by edema.

Treatment:

Medial fractures: relative rest (avoid painful activities), avoid NSAIDs, PT, gradual return to activity as dictated by symptoms

VERSUS

Anterior stress fracturesVery high risk injury pattern (delayed union and non union). Non weight bearing splint/cast. Intramedullary nail often used for failure of conservative treatment or earlier return to sport in competitive athletes.

Dreaded black line picture:

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Brian_Werner2/publication/265054294/figure/fig2/AS:295959096512514@1447573555901/Figure-2-A-Lateral-plain-radiograph-showing-the-%27%27dreaded-black-line%27%27-highlighted.png



A recent article from JAMA (link below) showed that Ibuprofen and opioids are similarly effective in the short term relief of acute extremity pain when used in combination with acetaminophen.  The study looked at adults with fractures and sprains and randomized them to one of four groups.

  • 400mg Ibuprofen and 1000mg acetaminophen
  • 5mg Oxycodone and 325mg acetaminophen 
  • 5mg Hydrocodone and 300mg acetaminophen
  • 30mg Codeine and 300mg acetaminophen

Pain relief was similar in all groups.

With the growing increase in opioid abuse/addiction it is good to know that in our patients that are not allergic to acetaminophen and ibuprofen (or all medications except for that one that begins with a “D”) we can provide good pain relief without using opioids.

 

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2661581

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Parsonage Turner syndrome

Keywords: Shoulder pain, neuritis (PubMed Search)

Posted: 11/11/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
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Parsonage Turner syndrome aka Neuralgic amyotrophy

 

30 cases per 100,000

Under recognized and often missed

Unknown cause, perhaps post viral. Also reported post stress (surgery, pregnancy)

Can be B/L in 10 to 30%

CC: sudden onset of severe pain in the shoulder.

Can last for hours to weeks.

Radiates to upper arm.

As pain begins to subside, muscle weakness and sensory loss follows.

Can preferentially involve the suprascapular and axillary nerve.

Outpatient workup may include MRI and EMG

Treatment: Supportive. Consider a trial of oral steroids. Provide good pain control.

Majority of patients improve within 3 months. Though up to a third have persistent pain/functional deficit.



Category: Orthopedics

Title: Quadriceps Contusion

Keywords: Muscle injury, splinting (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/28/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
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Question

Quadriceps Contusion

Mechanism: Blunt trauma to the anterior thigh (frequently football helmet or opponents knee)

Usually involves the anterior quadriceps (rectus femoris and vastus intermedius)

Pain on passive stretch and active contraction

Can develop large hematomas

Loss of knee flexion is a poor prognosticator

Complication: Myositis Ossificans (MO) (5-17%)

               Increased risk with delay in treatment > 3 days

               Radiographs can lag. Ultrasound in more sensitive

               Painful firm area in region of contusion occurring 2 to 3 weeks post injury

http://fifamedicinediploma.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/myositis_ossificans_lateral-1.jpg

Prompt treatment….key to good outcome and earlier return to sports

Large hematoma can be aspirated. NSAIDs may reduce edema and risk of MO. Splinting

Place quadriceps in 120 degrees of flexion for 24 hours following injury (keep muscle lengthened)

https://upload.orthobullets.com/topic/3103/images/quad%20contusion_moved.jpg

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Osteochondritis Dissecans

Keywords: Knee pain (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/14/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
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Complete or incomplete separation of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone

               -70% occur at the lateral aspect of the medial femoral condyle

               -Also seen in the talar dome and capitellum

Repetitive overloading leads to fragmentation and separation from surrounding bone

Prognosis better in kids than in adults

http://www.eorif.com/KneeLeg/Images/OCD4w.jpg

CC: Vague difficult to localize activity related pain and swelling. Mechanical symptoms only if loose body is present

PE: Wilson’s test

Internal tibial rotation and knee extension impinges the tibia on the OCD lesion causing pain. Pain abates with external rotation and flexion.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7zrKo41Pos

Plan of care: Limit activity and trial period of non-weight bearing for 6 weeks.

50% resolve in 10 to 18 months with conservative care.

Detached, loose or unstable fragments or failure of non-operative care will need surgery



Category: Orthopedics

Title: Lever Sign for ACL tears

Keywords: ACL tear (PubMed Search)

Posted: 9/23/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
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Lever Sign/Lelli’s test

A new test for diagnosing ACL tears

Higher sensitivity (94 - 100%) than the Lachman test (highest sensitivity test to date)

               With time and more study, this may become our new gold standard physical examination test

Very easy to learn and apply to bedside care

Can help with diagnosing partial tears

Area of manipulation is the femur and not the tibia (as in other tests)

Consider incorporating into your standard knee examination

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T9ujIYIctdw

Original study

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/25536951/

Validation

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26753117

Thank you to Ari Kestler for sending

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Viscosupplementation

Keywords: Knee OA, injection (PubMed Search)

Posted: 9/9/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

 

Viscosupplementation

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high-molecular weight polysaccharide

A major component of synovial fluid and of cartilage

Major role of HA is as a lubricant, shock absorption, antinociceptive effect

               Used in veterinary medicine for decades

Multiple brands exist with differences based on the molecular weight and how they are produced

Use supported by the Cochrane database (2007, 2014) for knee OA

Post injection strength gains are due to pain relief

May have a role for those who cannot receive steroid injections

Inject in similar manner to intra articular steroids

Caution in those with known allergy to poultry /eggs

Risks: Local reaction (likely from preservative), injection site pain, infection, bleeding.



Category: Orthopedics

Title: Concussion outcome predictors

Keywords: Concussion recovery (PubMed Search)

Posted: 8/26/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

There is tremendous interest in identifying factors that may influence outcome from sports related concussion.

The strongest predictor of slower recovery is the severity of symptoms in the 1-2 days post injury

     -Fewer Sx's in this time period predict a quicker recovery

Pre injury history of mental health problems, depression or migraine headaches predict a longer recovery course

Teenagers might be more vulnerable to having persistent symptoms with greater risk for girls than boys

Having a prior concussion is a risk for having a future concussion

The large majority of injured athletes recover from a clinical perspective within the first month of injury many within the first 10 days

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PCL injuries can sometimes have involvement of the posterolateral corner (PLC)

The dial test can be used to diagnose posterior lateral instability and help differentiate it from isolated PCL injuries

The dial test involves comparing the amount of external rotation of the lower leg at the knee while the knees are in 30° and in 90° of knee flexion.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rnk62Y-nDSQ

An isolated injury to the posterolateral corner will result in more than 10° of external rotation in the injured knee that is present at 30° but not at 90° of knee flexion.

http://www.kneejointsurgery.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/DIAL-TEST.jpg

http://www.kneejointsurgery.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/DIAL-TEST-90.jpg

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Nursemaid Elbow

Keywords: nursemaid, elbow (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/15/2017 by Michael Bond, MD
Click here to contact Michael Bond, MD

Question

Take Home Points:

  1. A radial head subluxation that is common in 1-3 year olds
  2. Often secondary to a longitudinal traction on an extended arm
  3. With a classic story radiographs are not required
  4. The hyperpronation technique has been show to be more effective and less painful in reducing it

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Legg Calve Perthes Disease

Keywords: Hip, pediatrics, arthritis (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/9/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD
Click here to contact Brian Corwell, MD

Question

Idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head

Children as young as 2 or as old as 12 but generally 4 to 8 (worse in older children)

Fare better than adults with osteonecrosis of femoral head

1 in 10,000

4-5x more common in males, much less common ini African Americans

Unilateral femoral head involvement 90% of the time (Bilateral 10% of the time)

Long term consequences are deformity and arthritis

Typical presentation: Subacute limping for weeks (Painless)

As activity worsens limp, it is maximal at the end of the day (Intermittent)

As in adults with hip pathology, IF pain is reported, it is located at the upper anterior thigh and groin

On examination, look for restriction in range of motion of the hip (compare with contralateral side)

May only present with mild to moderate decreased range of motion of the hip

            30 versus 60 degrees for example

             ABduct both legs with pelvis in neutral OR Place one hand on contralateral pelvis and ABduct affected leg with other hand.

 

 

 

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Category: Orthopedics

Title: Frozen Shoulder

Keywords: Adhesive Capsulitis (PubMed Search)

Posted: 6/24/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
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Adhesive Capsulitis aka Frozen Shoulder

Spontaneous gradual onset stiffness and pain of the Glenohumeral joint

Shoulder capsule becomes thickened and contracted

Often affects patients between 40 and 60 years old

Left> Right shoulder

Women> men

Association with diabetes and thyroid disease

3 clinical stages

1)      Pain – gradual onset, diffuse, severe, disabling, often worse at night

2)      Stiffness – decreased ROM, affects ADLs, improved pain

3)      Thawing – gradual return of motion

Physical examination: Painful and decreased ROM. Evaluate active and passive movement, external rotation and ABduction of the shoulder most affected

Surgical or post traumatic shoulder stiffness usually resolves within 12 months.

Adhesive capsulitis is generally self-limiting lasting an average of 18-36 months.

DDX: Chronic locked posterior shoulder dislocation (VERY IMPORTANT), tumor.

Treatment: NSAIDs, Physical therapy, Intra articular steroids

If this fails, manipulation under anesthesia and/or arthroscopic surgical release

 

 

 



Category: Orthopedics

Title: Shin Splints

Keywords: Runner, injury (PubMed Search)

Posted: 6/10/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
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Shin Splints

Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) aka shin splints is an overuse injury of the tibia

Very common

-10 to 15% of running injuries and over 50% of leg pain syndromes

3 Characteristics

1)      Pain along the posteromedial border of the tibia

2)      Diffuse pain

3)      Pain that is activity related

Risk  Factors

Female sex, increased weight, previous running injury, and

Higher navicular drop (amount of foot pronation) and

Greater hip external rotation with the hip in flexion

Differential  Diagnosis

Tibial stress fracture, compartment syndrome, nerve entrapment (sural), lumbar radiculopathy and popliteal artery entrapment. 



Category: Orthopedics

Title: Distal radius fracture

Keywords: Wrist fracture, splinting (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/27/2017 by Brian Corwell, MD
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Distal Radius Fractures

High energy mechanism in younger patients

Falls more common in older patients

Higher incidence in older women due to osteoporosis

     May indicate overall poor bone health

  Avoid splinting in positions of flexion (palmer) and ulnar deviation

    Palmer flexed positions may have a higher rate of displacement

Non operative treatment

Extra-articular fx, less than 5mm shortening of radius, Less than 5 degrees of dorsal angulation.

     Consider fractures than are only stable in extreme positions to be unstable

If fx involves the ulnar styloid or DRUG (distal radial ulnar joint) place in long area posterior splint with arm in mid supination (anatomic position of forearm)

 

 



Category: Orthopedics

Title: Reverse Segond Fracture

Keywords: Reverse Segond Fracture (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/21/2017 by Michael Bond, MD (Updated: 5/21/2024)
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Question

It is common teaching that a Segond Fracture is associated with ACL tears.  A reverse Segond fracture, avulsion fracture of the knee due to avulsion of the deep fibers of the medial collateral ligament, has also been described that was initially reported as associated with PCL tears.  However,  a more recent study has not been able to collaborate the PCL connection, but has shown that a reverse Segond fracture is associated with multiple ligamentous injuries to the knee.

Take home point:  If you note a Reverse Segond fracture on your plain flips have the patient followup with orthopedics for a possible MRI, as they probably have other ligamentous injuries that might need treatment.
 

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