UMEM Educational Pearls

- Magnets move through the GI tract at different rates and become lodged in adjacent loops of intestine. Adjacent bowel segments can stick together when the magnets attract each other through the bowel walls which can cause obstruction, perforation, fistula formation, and necrotic bowel.

- Obtain xray to identify ingested metallic object(s)

- Any object lodged in the esophagus should be emergently removed by a pediatric gastroenterologist.

- Once an object is past the stomach and beyond the reach of endoscopy, affected patients need to be watched carefully for signs of obstruction or peritonitis, either occurrence requiring the prompt consultation of a pediatric surgeon.

- Enhancement of magnet movement through the GI  tract may be aided by a laxative such as polyethylene glycol, but there is no clear data that this approach speeds the passage of the magnet. There is no clear guidance on how frequently to obtain abdominal radiographs to determine movement or passage of ingested magnets.

- More frequently lodge in esophagus due to seize and cause electric urn on contact

- Complications include perforation or fistula formation

- Honey or liquid ulcer medication carafate can slow extent of esophageal injury

- Current recommendations from National Button Battery Hotline: caregiver to give 2 teaspoons of honey every 10 minutes while en route to hospital

- Causes caustic contact to vocal cords, which leads to acute laryngospasm 

- Airway compromise, if to occur, occurs rapidly. If after brief obs period, it does not appear, it is very unlikely to be a late occurance. 

- Corrosive on GI tract. pH of detergents range from 7-9. 

- Any child with difficulty swallowing, drooling, stridor, and recurrent vomiting should have GI consulted for endoscopy

Tiki Torch Oil

- Tiki torch oil looks like apple juice (the container looks similar too)

- Lamp oil ingestion (hydrocarbons) can cause excessive drowsiness, lung injury, difficulty breathing

- Preventing accidental tiki torch oil ingestion: NEVER use torch fuels near area where food or drinks are served, keep out of reach and out of sight of young children, and only buy bottle of torch fuels with child-resistant cap and make sure to replace cap securely after every single use

Hydrogen Peroxide

- 35% hydrogen peroxide has become more popular as food-grade or nutraceutical product (food additive purportedly used for medicinal purposes)

- When hydrogen peroxide reacts with HCl in the stomach, it liberates large volumes of oxygen causing immediate frothy emesis and systemic absorption of oxygen. Gastric oxygen, once absorbed, passes through the portal vein to liver causing gas embolisms in liver

- Preferred evaluation of kids with known ingestion and acute vomiting should image by noncontrast limited upper abdominal CT (to reduce radiation exposure) to assess bubble burden. 

- There is no consensus on what is considered a significant air embolism burden that would require hyperbaric treatment

A single tablet of buprenorphine, or a single dissolvable gel strip of its formulation as Suboxone has been lethal to children.

Prescribing intranasal naloxone spray to the family of patients on buprenorphine (and methadone as well) is potentially lifesaving to the patient, should they take too much, but also for children in their homes who may accidentally eat a single tablet or chew on what appears to be a “gummy” product, a dissolvable formulation of Suboxone.

Pediatricians doing anticipatory safety guidance to parents at the 9-month-old to 1-year-old health supervision visit should ask about opiates and medication-assisted therapy present in the home or used by caregivers (especially grandparents) and should offer to write a prescription for naloxone nasal spray