Category: Critical Care
Keywords: Pressors, Vasopressin, Sepsis, Septic Shock (PubMed Search)
Norepinephrine is widely considered the first-line vasopressor for patients in septic shock. Vasopressin is often added to norepinephrine in patients requiring escalating doses, but when to add vasopressin, and what exactly the benefit is (as opposed to just further titrating up the norepinephrine) remain unclear. Given the limited evidence for a patient-oriented benefit and the increasing cost of vasopressin, some centers are becoming more judicious in the use of vasopressin. A systematic review in AJEM October 2021 examined the literature on early (< 6 hours of diagnosis) addition of vasopressin to the management of septic shock patients, compared to either no vasopressin or starting it after 6 hours.
Improved with early vasopressin: Need for renal replacement therapy (RRT; secondary outcome)
No difference: mortality, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, new onset arrhythmias
Bottom Line: When, and if, to start vasopressin in patients requiring escalating doses of norepinephrine remains controversial. Based on the prior VASST trial, many providers will start vasopressin when norepi doses reach ~ 5-15 mcg/min (approx 0.1-0.2 mcg/kg/min), but there remains limited data to support this practice, and either starting vasopressin or continuing to titrate the norepinephrine as needed are both reasonable approaches in most patients.
1) Huang H, Wu C, Shen Q, Xu H, Fang Y, Mao W. The effect of early vasopressin use on patients with septic shock: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2021 May 6;48:203-208. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.05.007. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33975132.
2) Russell JA, Walley KR, Singer J, Gordon AC, Hébert PC, Cooper DJ, Holmes CL, Mehta S, Granton JT, Storms MM, Cook DJ, Presneill JJ, Ayers D; VASST Investigators. Vasopressin versus norepinephrine infusion in patients with septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2008 Feb 28;358(9):877-87. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa067373. PMID: 18305265.
3) Lam SW, Barreto EF, Scott R, Kashani KB, Khanna AK, Bauer SR. Cost-effectiveness of second-line vasopressors for the treatment of septic shock. J Crit Care. 2020 Feb;55:48-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2019.10.005. Epub 2019 Oct 23. PMID: 31706118.