Category: Critical Care
Keywords: COVID-19, Anticoagulation, Thromboembolism (PubMed Search)
COVID-19 is generally regarded as a hypercoagulable state, and the role of pulmonary emboli and other VTE in COVID remains unclear. As a result, how to optimally provide prophylactic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients who are not known to have VTE has been a point of debate.
The INSPIRATION trial looked at 600 patients admitted to academic ICUs in Iran, and compared what is often-referred to as "intermediate-dose" prophylaxis (in this case 1 mg/kg daily of enoxaparin) to standard dose prophylaxis (40 mg/day of enoxaparin). The study utilized a combined endpoint of venous thromboembolism, arterial thromboembolism, need for ECMO, or mortality. As a reminder, composite endpoints can skew results. However, the dose and type of anticoagulant chosen is similar to many academic centers around the world, and pharmacy guidelines often recommend providing this type of "intermediate-dose" prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients, sometimes based on clinical status, d-dimer or other coagulation-related patient-data. As with many things with COVID-19, this practice is based on limited data.
There was no significant difference between groups in the primary outcome (45.7% in intermediate ppx group vs 44.1% in standard group), and while safety outcomes were similar (major bleeding in 2.5% in the intermediate ppx group vs 1.4% in standard group), the intermediate regimen failed to demonstrate non-inferiority to the standard regimen for major bleeding.
Intermediate vs standard-dose ppx was similar in this study with a small, but statistically significant increase in major bleeding in the intermediate-dose group.
Bottom Line: Although this study had methodologic flaws and there are external validity concerns, the INSPIRATION trial supports the notion that standard dose (e.g. 40 mg/g/kg/day enoxaparin) and intermediate-dose (e.g. 1 mg/kg/day enoxaparin) VTE prophylaxis are equivalent in critically ill COVID-19 patients who do not already have a known VTE in terms of preventing negative VTE outcomes. Intermediate-dose may be associated with increased bleeding. As more critically ill patients require ED boarding, the dose of VTE prophylaxis may remain controversial, but the need to start it remains an important consideration.
INSPIRATION Investigators, Sadeghipour P, Talasaz AH, Rashidi F, Sharif-Kashani B, Beigmohammadi MT, Farrokhpour M, Sezavar SH, Payandemehr P, Dabbagh A, Moghadam KG, Jamalkhani S, Khalili H, Yadollahzadeh M, Riahi T, Rezaeifar P, Tahamtan O, Matin S, Abedini A, Lookzadeh S, Rahmani H, Zoghi E, Mohammadi K, Sadeghipour P, Abri H, Tabrizi S, Mousavian SM, Shahmirzaei S, Bakhshandeh H, Amin A, Rafiee F, Baghizadeh E, Mohebbi B, Parhizgar SE, Aliannejad R, Eslami V, Kashefizadeh A, Kakavand H, Hosseini SH, Shafaghi S, Ghazi SF, Najafi A, Jimenez D, Gupta A, Madhavan MV, Sethi SS, Parikh SA, Monreal M, Hadavand N, Hajighasemi A, Maleki M, Sadeghian S, Piazza G, Kirtane AJ, Van Tassell BW, Dobesh PP, Stone GW, Lip GYH, Krumholz HM, Goldhaber SZ, Bikdeli B. Effect of Intermediate-Dose vs Standard-Dose Prophylactic Anticoagulation on Thrombotic Events, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Treatment, or Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19 Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: The INSPIRATION Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021 Mar 18. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.4152. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33734299.