Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Keywords: Pyelonephritis, Outpatient, Fluoroquinolones, TMP-SMX, Beta-lactams (PubMed Search)
While fluoroquinolones have fallen out of favor for many indications due to the ever growing list of adverse effects, they still play an important role in the outpatient treatment of pyelonephritis. Fluoroquinolones and TMP-SMX are the preferred agents due to higher failure rates with beta-lactams.
Ciprofloxacin 500 mg PO BID*
Levofloxacin 750 mg PO daily*
TMP-SMX 1 DS tab PO BID**
*Consider a single dose of long-acting parenteral agent, such as ceftriaxone, if community prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance >10%.
**Consider a single dose of long-acting parenteral agent, such as ceftriaxone, if using TMP-SMX.
Cefpodoxime 200 mg PO BID
Cefdinir 300 mg PO BID
#Beta-lactams are not preferred agents due to higher failure rates when compared to fluoroquinolones. Consider a single dose of long-acting parenteral agent, such as ceftriaxone, if using beta-lactams.
Duration of Therapy: 10-14 days
Take Home Point:
Utilize ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, or TMP-SMX over beta-lactams when discharging patients with oral antibiotics for pyelonephritis.
Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG, et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52:e103.
Urinary Tract Infections. UMMS Clinical Practice Guidelines. Sanford Guide, 2021. Accessed April 2, 2021. https://webedition.sanfordguide.com/en/umms/syndromes/urinary-tract-infections.