Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Keywords: acute kidney injury (PubMed Search)
Short periods of AKI have been linked to prolonged hospitalizations, development of CKD/ESRD and in-hospital mortality. Historically, AKI in the ED has been studied with respect to the receipt of contrast media with little data available on nephrotoxic medications.
A recent 5-year retrospective cohort study sought to determine the impact of prescribing nephrotoxic medications in the ED and the development of AKI within 7 days defined as an increase in SCr of ≥ 0.3 mg/dL or 1.5 x baseline. The categories of potentially nephrotoxic medications included ACE-i/ARB, antibiotics, diuretics, NSAIDs, and other (antifungal, antineoplastic, and antivirals).
Inclusion: Adult patients ≥ 18 years, with an initial and repeat SCr measured 24-168h after the initial test, under admitted or observation status (discharged patients were included if they had a repeat SCr in the time window).
Exclusion: previous hospital or ED visit within 7 days, initial SCr < 0.4 mg/dL, initial SCr > 4.0 mg/dL, missing data, dialysis, or transplant history.
The authors assessed 46,965 hospitalized encounters and found that 13.8% of patients developed AKI. Risk factors included older age, African American patients, history of CHF or CKD, higher initial SCr, and higher complexity and mortality. AKI developed within 48 hours in half of the patients and the reminder did so by 120 hours. Approximately 22% had ≥ 1 potentially nephrotoxic medication administered and 6% had ≥ 2 classes.
Diuretics were associated with the highest risk of AKI (64% increased risk), followed by ACE-i/ARBs (39%), and antibiotics (13%). NSAIDs were not associated with an increased risk. The antibiotics associated with the highest risk of AKI were piperacillin-tazobactam, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and quinolones.
Bottom Line: Medications prescribed in the ED have an impact on the development of AKI during hospitalization. While these cannot always be avoided, use caution when combining multiple nephrotoxic medications and discontinue therapy early when feasible.
Hinson J, et al. Risk of acute kidney injury associated with medication administration in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2020;58(3): 487-496.