UMEM Educational Pearls

Category: Airway Management

Title: Fixed Dose PCC for Warfarin-Associated Critical Bleeding

Keywords: prothrombin complex concentrate, warfarin, bleeding (PubMed Search)

Posted: 5/29/2019 by Ashley Martinelli (Emailed: 6/1/2019) (Updated: 6/1/2019)
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For patients with bleeding due to warfarin, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) is the recommended antidote. Historically, PCC has been dosed on weight and INR:

·         INR 2 - 4: 25 units/kg, max 2500 units

·         INR 4 - 6: 35 units/kg, max 3500 units

·         INR > 6: 50 units/kg, max 5000 units

New data demonstrates that fixed dosing offers several advantages with similar efficacy outcomes:

·         Standardized dosing

·         Improved time to administration

·         Decreased cost

The University of Maryland Health System has adopted a fixed dose strategy for all patients with warfarin-associated critical bleeding:

·         Bleeding site other than intracranial hemorrhage AND INR 1.4 - 6 AND weight ≤ 100 kg = 1500 units

·         Intracranial hemorrhage OR > 100 kg OR INR >6 = 2000 units

**Note: PCC is also the antidote of choice for reversing critical bleeding due to factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban).  All critical bleeds due to these agents should receive 50 units/kg, max 5000 units.


Klein L, Peters J, Miner J, Gorlin J. Evaluation of fixed dose 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for emergent warfarin reversal. Am J Emerg Med. 2015;33: 1213-12128.

Astrup G, Sarangarm P, Burnett A. Fixed dose 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for the emergent reversal of warfarin: a retrospective analysis. J Thrombosis Thrombolysis. 2018;45:300-305.

Scott R, Kersten B, Baisor J, Nadler M. Evaluation of fixed-dose four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for emergent warfarin reversal in patients with intracranial hemorrhage. J Emerg Med. 2018;54(6):861-866.