Keywords: Maintenance fluids, D5, NS, hyponatremia (PubMed Search)
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospitalized patients, affecting approximately 15-30% of patients. Children have historically been given hypotonic maintenance IV fluids based off of theoretical calculations from the 1950s. Multiple studies have shown complications related to iatrogenic hyponatremia, including increased length of hospital stay, seizures and death.
The American Academy of pediatrics completed a systematic review and developed an updated clinical practice guideline:
Patient's age 28 days to 18 years requiring maintenance IV fluids should receive isotonic solutions with the appropriate amount KCl and dextrose.
Feld LG, Neuspiel DR, Foster BA, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Maintenance Intravenous Fluids in Children. Pediatrics. 2018;142(6):e20183083