UMEM Educational Pearls

Category: Toxicology

Title: Urine drug testing

Keywords: Urine Drug Sreen (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/19/2017 by Kathy Prybys, DO (Emailed: 1/20/2017) (Updated: 1/20/2017)
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Urine drug screens are most commonly performed by immunoassay technology utilizing monoclonal antibodies that recognizes a structural feature of a drug or its metabolites.  They are simple to perform. provide rapid screening, and qualitative results on up to 10 distinct drug classes with good sensitivity but imperfect specificity. This can lead to false positive results and the need for confirmatory testing. UDS  does not detect synthetic opiates or cannabinoids, bath salts (synthetic cathinones), and  gamma-hydroybutyrate. Most common drug classes detected are the following:

  • Opiates
  • Methadone
  • Benzodiazepines (not all)
  • Amphetamines 
  • Cocaine
  • THC metabolites
  • Barbituates
  • LSD
  • PCP
  • MDMA (Ecstasy)




Rational Use and Interpretation of Urine Drug Testing in Chronic Opioid Therapy. Reisberg GM, et al. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2007 Vol 37 (4). 301-314.