Keywords: dehydration (PubMed Search)
Dehydration is a common pediatric ED presentation. Oral rehydration (although first choice) is often not possible secondary to patient cooperation and/ or persistent vomiting. Intravenous (IV) hydration is often difficult, requiring multiple attempts especially in the young dehydrated infant.
Hyaluronan is a mucopolysaccharude present in connective tissue that prevents the spread of substances through the subcutneous space. Hyaluronidase is a human DNA-derived enzyme that breaks down hyaluronan and temporarily increases its permeability, thereby allowing fluid to be absorbed with the capillary and lymphatic systems.
In one study, patients age 1 month to 10 years were randomized to recieve 20 mL/kg bolus NS via subcutaneous (SC) or IV route over one hour, then as needed. The mean volume infused in the ED was 334.3 mL (SC) vs 299.6 mL (IV). Succesful line placement occured in all 73 SC patients and only 59/75 IV patients. There was a higher proportion of satisfaction for clinicians and parents for ease of use and satisfaction, respectively.
Bottom line: Consider subcutaneous hyaluronidase faciliated rehydration in mild to moderately dehydrated children, especially with difficult IV access.
Spandorfer PR, et al. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Recombinant Human Hyaluronidase-Fcilitated Subcutaneous Versus Intravenous Rehydration in Mild to Moderately Dehydrated Children in the Emergency Department. Clinical Therapeutics, 2012; 34(11): 2232-2245.