Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Keywords: cryptococcal, meningitis, amphotericin, flucytosine (PubMed Search)
Treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS can frequently mean consideration for, and need to treat cryptoccocal meningitis.
Since 1997, studies have demonstrated that high-dose Amphotericin B combined with flucytosine has improved outcomes compared to low dose treatment or monotherapy.
A recent 2013 study reiterated this approach, showing significant decrease in deaths at 70 days post-treatment and increased rates of yeast clearance with combination therapy of Amphotericin B plus flucytosine.
Antifungal treatment of cryptococcal meningitis should start with Amphotericin B at 0.7-1 mg/kg IV daily plus concurrent flucytosine 25 mg/kg orally q6 hours. Fluconazole can be substituted in place of flucytosine if it is not available or not tolerated.