Keywords: UTI, urinary tract infection (PubMed Search)
--The diagnosis and treatment of pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs) can be broken down into different age groups. The AAP has recently updated its recommendations for children age 2 - 24 months.
--In ill-appearing febrile infants age 2 – 24 months, who require early initiation of antibiotics, clinicians should obtain urinalysis and urine culture by catheterization or suprapubic aspiration prior to administration of the first dose of antibiotics.
--Key components of diagnosing a UTI include: urinalysis with the presence of pyuria (>10 WBCs per µL) and bacteriuria. The ultimate diagnosis relies on identification of >50,000 CFUs per mL of a single urinary pathogen in culture.
--Treatment of most UTIs in well appearing infants 2-24 months can be done with oral antibiotics for a course of 7-14 days. Common antibiotics used include: amoxicillin-clavulanate, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or cephalosporins (cefpodoxime, cefixime) based on local patterns of susceptibility.
--Febrile infants with UTIs should undergo renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) to evaluate the renal parenchyma and identify complications of UTI in children who are not responding to treatment within 48 hours.
--Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) as a cause of UTI should not be obtained routinely, but only in children with abnormal RBUS or with recurrent febrile UTIs.
Urinary Tract Infection: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of the Initial UTI in Febrile Infants and Children 2 to 24 Months. Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection, Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management. Pediatrics 2011; 595 – 610.