UMEM Educational Pearls

Ventilator-associated Pneumonia

  • Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a well known complication of mechanical ventilation (MV) and is associated with increased duration of MV, hospital length of stay, and cost.
  • VAP is commonly associated with multi-drug resistant organisms, including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, and Enterobacteriaceae.
  • Given the significant impact upon morbidity, a number of organizations have recommended "bundles" of care for the prevention of VAP.
  • Important measures for the prevention of VAP include:
    • Strict hand hygiene
    • Head of bed elevation to 30-45 degrees
    • Closed endotracheal suctioning
    • Maintaining endotracheal tube cuff pressure > 20 cm H2O
    • Oral chlorhexidine rinses
    • Orogastric tube placement


Kollef MH. Ventilator-associated complications, including infection-related complications. Crit Care Clin 2013; 29:33-50.