UMEM Educational Pearls

Potential Causes of Neonatal Apnea and Bradycardia

• Central nervous system  

Intraventricular hemorrhage, drugs maternal/fetal, seizures, hypoxic injury, herniation, neuromuscular disorders, brainstem infarction or anomalies (e.g., olivopontocerebellar atrophy), general anesthesia.

• Respiratory

Pneumonia, obstructive airway lesions, upper airway collapse, atelectasis, extreme prematurity  (<1,000 g), phrenic nerve paralysis, severe hyaline membrane disease, pneumothorax, hypoxia, malformations of the chest.

• Infectious

Sepsis, meningitis (bacterial, fungal, viral), RSV

• Metabolic

Hypoglycemia, hyper/hyponatrmia,  hyperammonemia, decreased organic acids, hypothermia.

• Cardiovascular

Hypotension/hypovolemia, heart failure, PDA, anemia, vagal tone.