UMEM Educational Pearls - Pediatrics

Category: Pediatrics

Title: Acute Otitis Media

Keywords: Acute Otitis Media, Amoxicillin, insufflation, Delayed treament (PubMed Search)

Posted: 7/14/2007 by Sean Fox, MD (Emailed: 7/8/2007) (Updated: 6/15/2024)
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Acute Otitis Media Make the Diagnosis Properly ==> Acute Onset of Symptoms ==> Signs of Middle Ear Infection (1) Buldging TM, poor mobility c insufflation, otorrhea, air-fluid level ==> Signs of Middle Ear Inflammation (1) TM erythema or otalgia (that interferes with nl activity) Can you wait on the Abx? ==> Older than 6months ==> No severe infections (T>39 C) ==> If yes to both, may hold Abx for 48 hours. Treat Appropriately ==> High-Dose Amoxicillin (80-90mg/kg/D) is 1st line If the decision is made to observe without antibiotic therapy, the parents can be given a prescription for Abx with instructions to fill it if the child does not improve in 48 to 72 hours, or see the PMD in 2 days. (Spiro, D. Tay, K. Wait-to-see prescription for the treatment of acute otitis media. JAMA 2006, 1235.)

Category: Pediatrics

Title: Tinea Capitis

Posted: 3/9/2013 by Rose Chasm, MD (Emailed: 6/15/2024) (Updated: 6/15/2024)
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  • Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) is caused by dermatophytic fungi
  • Trichophyton tonsurans is the most common species in the US, and does NOT flouresce under Wood's lamp
  • Griseofulvin (20-25mg/kg/ day orally) is the standard first-line therapy in children older than 2 years, and has a good safety profile
  • Both tablet and suspension formulations are available, and it should be taken with food that are high in fat to increase drug concentrations
  • NO laboratory assessment of hepatic enzymes is required during the 8-week therapy course in children who have no history or clinical examination findings concerning for liver disease.
  • Topical antifungal agents are ineffective because they do not penetrate sufficiently into the hair shaft.

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Category: Pediatrics

Title: Visual Diagnosis Pediatrics: Case thanks to Ari Kestler MD (@KestlerMD) and Haney Mallemat MD (@CriticalCareNow)

Keywords: non-accidental trauma, clavicle fracture, neonate, pediatrics, abuse (PubMed Search)

Posted: 10/4/2014 by Ashley Strobel, MD (Emailed: 6/15/2024)
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Question

Q: What is wrong with this baby? And what Dx should you entertain?

Previously healthy 7d old presents after difficulty feeding, one episode of vomiting and now with intermittent apneic episodes.

 

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Category: Pediatrics

Title: Apnea and bronchiolitis

Keywords: hospitalization, RSV, bronchiolitis (PubMed Search)

Posted: 12/17/2021 by Jennifer Guyther, MD (Emailed: 6/15/2024) (Updated: 6/15/2024)
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Typical admission considerations for patients with bronchiolitis are work of breathing, hypoxia, and dehydration.  The patients risk of apnea should also be considered.  Younger infants with bronchiolitis are at a risk for apnea.  Studies have cited anywhere from a 16-25% risk in younger infants.  The problem lies in identifying those patients who are at risk and those who are not.  This older study looked at 691 infants and developed criteria which identified all of the 2.7% of patients who developed apnea.
The high risk criteria used in this study were: 1) Full term and younger than 1 month; 2) Born < 37 weeks gestation and younger than 48 weeks post conception or 3) Parents already noted an episode of apnea with this illness.
Bottom line: Incorporate the infants risk of apnea into your disposition decision for patients with bronchiolitis.

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