Keywords: Sternoclavicular, Dislocation, Posterior (PubMed Search)
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Keywords: Metacarpal, Fracture, Boxer's Fracture (PubMed Search)
Metacarpal Neck Fractures (i.e.: Boxer’s Fracture if 5th Metacarpal)
Depending on the MCP joint involved a certain amount of angulation is permissible before it adversely affects normal function.
Keywords: Knee Injury, ACL, dislocation (PubMed Search)
Some quick facts about Knee Injuries:
Keywords: Salter Harris, Fracture, Strain, pediatric (PubMed Search)
Pediatric Strain versus Fracture
Review of Salter Harris Fractures
Keywords: Back Pain, Guideline, Treatment (PubMed Search)
Low Back is one of the most common complaints that we see in the Emergency Department. Our first priority is to rule out those causes that can lead to paralysis or death (i.e.: epidural abscess, pathological fracture, cauda equina syndrome, etc…). However, most of the back pain that we will see is musculoskeletal in origin.
The American College of Physicians (ACP) and the American Pain Society (APS) recently released some joint recommendations on the evaluation of treatment of individuals with back pain.
In summary their key recommendations are:
Links to the Clinical Guidelines are listed below:
Keywords: Supracondylar, Fracture, Pediatric, Ossification (PubMed Search)
Keywords: tendon, antibiotics, tendonitis (PubMed Search)
A recent article in Pediatrics attempted to estimate the association between fluoroquinolone use and tendon injury in an adolescent population.
Fluoroquinolones are thought to negatively impact tendons and cartilage in the load-bearing joints of the lower limbs through collagen degradation, necrosis, and disruption of the extracellular matrix.
Population: 4.4 million adolescents aged 12–18 years with filled outpatient fluoroquinolone prescription vs. an oral broad-spectrum antibiotic for comparison.
Fluoroquinolones included ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin
Comparator antibiotics included amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, cefalexin, cefixime, cefdinir, nitrofurantoin, and bactrim.
Outcomes: Primary outcome was 90-day tendon rupture (Achilles, patellar, quadricep, patellar, tibial) identified by diagnosis and procedure codes. Secondary outcome was tendinitis.
Results: The weighted 90-day tendon rupture risk was 13.6 per 100 000 fluoroquinolone-treated adolescents and 11.6 per 100 000 comparator-treated adolescents.
Fluoroquinolone-associated excess risk: 1.9 per 100 000 adolescents; the corresponding number needed to treat to harm was 52 632.
The weighted 90-day tendinitis risk was 200.8 per 100 000 fluoroquinolone-treated adolescents and 178.1 per 100 000 comparator-treated adolescents
Fluoroquinolone-associated excess risk excess risk: 22.7 per 100 000 adolescents; the corresponding number needed to treat to harm was 4405.
The excess risk of tendon rupture associated with fluoroquinolone treatment was extremely small, and these events were rare. On average, 50,000 adolescents would need to be treated with a fluoroquinolone for 1 additional tendon rupture to occur
The excess risk of tendinitis associated with fluoroquinolone treatment though larger was also small.
Besides tendon rupture, other more common potential adverse drug effects may be more important to consider for treatment decision-making, in adolescents without other risk factors for tendon injury.
Ross RK, Kinlaw AC, Herzog MM, Jonsson Funk M, Gerber JS. Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics and Tendon Injury in Adolescents. Pediatrics. 2021 May 14:e2020033316.
Keywords: Sports Hernia, groin pain (PubMed Search)
Sports Hernia/Athletic pubalgia
Hx: Gradually increasing lower abdominal/proximal adductor pain. Usually activity related, resolves with rest. Frequent return despite rest when sports activity resumes.
Most common in athletes who perform cutting/maneuvers in addition to frequent acceleration/deceleration. Think ice hockey and soccer.
Bilateral symptoms not uncommon.
PE: Resisted sit up with palpation of the inferolateral edge of the distal rectus may recreate symptoms. Similarly, resisted hip adduction may elicit symptoms.
If for no other reason than to make the diagnosis harder to make, valsalva induced pain may also occur.
Fluoroscopic guided injections can be helpful to isolate the site of pain generation.
First line therapy is rest, non-narcotic analgesia and physical therapy.
With surgery, >80% return to pre injury level of play.
Sports Hernia/Athletic Pubalgia: Evaluation and Management. Christopher Larson. Sports Health.