UMEM Educational Pearls

Category: Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Title: Flu Season is Upon Us: Treatment with Oseltamivir

Keywords: Flu, Treatment, Oseltamivir (PubMed Search)

Posted: 1/8/2019 by Wesley Oliver (Updated: 6/18/2019)
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Takeaways

---Early antiviral treatment can shorten the duration of fever and illness symptoms, and may reduce the risk of some complications from influenza.

---Early treatment of hospitalized adult influenza patients with oseltamivir has been reported to reduce death in some observational studies.

---Clinical benefit is greatest when antiviral treatment is administered within 48 hours of influenza illness onset.

 

Antiviral treatment is recommended for patients with confirmed or suspected influenza who:

---are hospitalized;

---have severe, complicated, or progressive illness; or

---are at higher risk for influenza complications. (See below for in-depth information)

Oral oseltamivir is the recommended antiviral for patients with severe, complicated, or progressive illness who are not hospitalized, and for hospitalized influenza patients.

 

Treatment:

Doses: Oseltamivir 75 mg twice daily

Renal Impairment Dosing

CrCl >60 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary

CrCl >30 to 60 mL/minute: 30 mg twice daily

CrCl >10 to 30 mL/minute: 30 mg once daily

ESRD undergoing dialysis: 30 mg immediately and then 30 mg after every hemodialysis session

 

Duration of Treatment:

Recommended duration for antiviral treatment is 5 days for oral oseltamivir. Longer daily dosing can be considered for patients who remain severely ill after 5 days of treatment.

In-Depth

People at higher risk for influenza complications recommended for antiviral treatment include:

---children younger than 2 years;

---adults 65 years and older;

---people with chronic pulmonary (including asthma), cardiovascular (except hypertension alone), renal, hepatic, hematological (including sickle cell disease), and metabolic disorders (including diabetes mellitus), or neurologic and neurodevelopment conditions (including disorders of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve, and muscle, such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy [seizure disorders], stroke, intellectual disability, moderate to severe developmental delay, muscular dystrophy, or spinal cord injury);

---people with immunosuppression, including that caused by medications or by HIV infection;

---women who are pregnant or postpartum (within 2 weeks after delivery);

---people younger than 19 years old who are receiving long-term aspirin- or salicylate-containing medications

---American Indians/Alaska Natives;

---people who are extremely obese (i.e., body mass index is equal to or greater than 40); and

---residents of nursing homes and other chronic care facilities.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Influenza antiviral medications: summary for clinicians. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/antivirals/summary-clinicians.htm (Accessed on January 8, 2019).